The Ticonderoga Branch

of the

Delaware & Hudson Railroad

This project was originally undertaken for and published by the Bridge Line Historical Society in its October 1999 publication of the "Bulletin".  I have been a member of this historical society for several years.  The Bridge Line Historical Society is a fantastic organization dedicated to preserving the history of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad.   I had long hoped for someone to write a detailed article on the Ticonderoga Branch of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad.  I had run across brief bits and casual references to this little known branch, but never anything detailed or in-depth.  Finally, I decided to write an article myself and submit it to the Bridge Line Historical Society for publication.  I figured, why not?  I was born and raised in Ticonderoga so I’m probably qualified!  And so began the research process beginning with many Ticonderoga materials I already owned as well as my many childhood memories of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad's influence in Ticonderoga.  This web page was eventually created from the original "Bulletin" article.  Since that time, I have continued researching information, gathering additional photos and maps, and updating the information on this web page as relevant information surfaced.

The name Ticonderoga, or as the Algonquin and Iroquois Indians called it – Chinandroga, loosely means “the place between two lakes.”  I use the name “Ticonderoga Branch”, but Jim Shaughnessy refers to it as the Baldwin Branch in his book.

The line is also referred to as the Baldwin Branch in much of the Delaware and Hudson literature.  Those native to Ticonderoga, however, know the line as the Lake George Branch (not to be confused with the D&H line running from Fort Edward to the town of Lake George (or Caldwell, NY as it was formerly known) since it’s sole purpose was to link the Lake Champlain and Baldwin dock (on Lake George in Ticonderoga) steamboat landings. 

A passenger train led by Delaware and Hudson #559, a Class D-3 4-6-0 double cab, sits at Fort Ticonderoga station (Montcalm Landing) just south of the entrance to the Baldwin Branch. Date is unknown, but the engine was scrapped on March 1949. (M Wright collection)

An 1891 map of Ticonderoga refers to this portion of the Delaware and Hudson line as the Lake George Branch as do many of the Sanborn Map & Publishing Company's fire insurance maps.  I also own an 1891 Delaware & Hudson Railroad system timetable which identifies the Lake George Branch as that line leading from Delano Junction to Baldwin.  The Lake George Branch terminology was used for years, but was renamed the Baldwin Branch between 1900 and 1906.  This more than likely occurred when the Caldwell Branch was renamed the Lake George Branch.

Despite all these naming conventions, the branch line from Montcalm Landing to Baldwin is properly named the Baldwin Branch.  The small branch that split from the Lake George Branch (which I will call the Baldwin Branch from this point on) at Ticonderoga or Delano Junction and traveled into the Village of Ticonderoga was correctly referred to as the Ticonderoga Branch by the Delaware and Hudson and was owned by the Ticonderoga Railroad Company.  This is confirmed by much of the Delaware and Hudson literature I have seen such as the Joint Official Lists published annually by the railroad.

The first steamship "Ticonderoga" traveled along beautiful Lake George carrying passengers from the Fort William Henry Hotel south to the railroad dock at Baldwin near the Village of Ticonderoga from 1884 until it burned in 1906. The ship was christened by Miss Cora Baldwin, daughter of Capt. William G. Baldwin.  The second "Ticonderoga", pictured here, ran along Lake Champlain. (US Library of Congress photo)

The Baldwin Branch was constructed in 1874 between Baldwin's Landing (Baldwin Dock) on Lake George and Montcalm Landing on Lake Champlain.  It opened for rail service on May 1, 1875.  It was built upon and followed the old Baldwin stage route that had been used for years to link Lake Champlain with Baldwin dock.  Up until 1874, connections between steamboats on Lake George and Lake Champlain were made by stagecoach under the guidance of William J. Baldwin.  The Baldwin stages carried 20-35 passengers making the five-mile trip in about 35 minutes.  Construction of the Baldwin Branch ended the old Baldwin stage route although a smaller line continued from the railroad station at Addison Junction to the Central House, later the Burleigh House, in the lower village of Ticonderoga until the early 1920's.

A Delaware and Hudson Class G-5 4-4-0 double cab Camelback (#444) at Montcalm Landing near the Fort Ticonderoga station. Date unknown, but the Alco engine was scrapped in October 1929. (M Wright collection)

The street names in Ticonderoga changed over the years from the more traditional street names to a more historical naming convention.  Throughout this information, street names inside parentheses denote the earlier or later street name.

A little background history may be in order to explain how the railroad eventually came to the Ticonderoga area.  New York and Vermont railroad interests competed heavily to establish and control rail service north through the Champlain Valley. The Whitehall and Plattsburgh planned to link Whitehall and Plattsburgh by a railroad along the western border of Lake Champlain from Whitehall to Port Henry and then on to the AuSable River near AuSable Forks, eventually reaching Plattsburgh. In 1861, the Whitehall and Plattsburg Railroad Company incorporated and began surveys for a rail line between Port Henry and Ticonderoga.

A section of the line along the AuSable River to Plattsburgh was completed in 1869 and then leased to the Montreal and Plattsburgh Railroad Company. Due to the intervention of the Civil War, actual construction to Ticonderoga did not begin until February 20, 1869 when a start was made in the town of Crown Point.  The impetus for the renewal of construction came from backing received from state aid plus local subscriptions from various towns along the lakeshore. By 1870, the Whitehall and Plattsburgh Railroad Company had built a section from Fort Ticonderoga to Port Henry. This section crossed over Bulwagga Bay at Port Henry using a timber trestle. By 1872, trains were operating between Ticonderoga and Port Henry.  This 16 miles of track was a small and virtually useless section that really didn’t go anywhere.  Failure of the New York legislature to provide additional support brought the project to a standstill.

In 1871 control of the Montreal and Plattsburg Railroad Company was leased to the Rutland Railroad Company, which then assigned its leases to the Vermont Central and the Vermont and Canada Railroad Companies. This gave Vermont interests control on the west side of Lake Champlain. Those interests had every intention of preventing completion of through rail service on that side of the lake.

This old AMTRAK station seen here in June 1990 was located at the former Montcalm Landing and across the street from the Fort View Inn. For years it sat in disrepair becoming a joke and eye sore for the community until being replaced by another facility further up the line in 1991. The beginning of the Baldwin Branch was a short distance north of here. (M. Wright photo)

The new Ticonderoga AMTRAK station seen here in July 1999 was moved further up the line near Fort Ticonderoga. (M. Wright photo)

Meanwhile, a drawbridge, also known as "The Great Eastern Drawbridge" by the locals, was constructed by the Addison Railroad in 1871 across Lake Champlain from Willow Point just north of Fort Ticonderoga to connect with Larrabees Point on the Vermont shore and the Addison Railroad (leased to the Rutland Railroad in 1870) line from Leicester Junction, Vermont.  The trestle portion was 1800 feet long and required 800 piles.  Each pile was 80 feet long.  The floating bridge was 300 feet long, 30 feet wide and weighed about 300 tons.  The draw of the bridge was turned about one hinged side using a 12 hp engine that pulled a chain laid on the lake bottom.  The floating bridge portion then swung aside to let boat and steamship traffic through.

This portion of the D&H mainline at Addison Junction was known as Pell's Siding. There was one passing track located to the west of the main line and another short spur to the west of that. A short track to the east of the main served the station at Addison Junction. There was also a wye curving towards the east from the north and southbound directions along the main line leading to the drawbridge.

By February of 1872, this line was in operation with cars running regularly between Addison Junction, as the rail station on the west shore was known, and Rutland. This small section of railroad across Lake Champlain was the scene of many accidents due to poor construction techniques; a result of work done too hastily.  Construction and maintenance problems were soon resolved.

By this time, the Vermont interests were seeing stiff competition in the form of a Mr. Smith M. Weed of Plattsburgh. He was a strong proponent of construction of a through rail route along the west shore of Lake Champlain. Weed, a highly respected attorney was also a State Assemblyman and was influential with state and national officials. In early 1872, he met with officers and managers of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. Weed explained the potential benefits of a through rail system along the west shore of Lake Champlain. He was apparently very convincing as the New York and Canada Railroad Company, a Delaware and Hudson Railroad enterprise, was formed. The company incorporated on March 16, 1872 to build a railroad from Whitehall to the New York - Canada border in Clinton County. In 1873, the Delaware and Hudson purchased the control and leaseholds of the Whitehall and Plattsburg and the Montreal and Plattsburgh Railroad from the Vermont interests. These holdings were merged into the New York and Canada Railroad Company and approved by the New York State Legislature on April 15, 1873. It had become apparent to the Vermont interests that the well-financed Delaware and Hudson intended to complete a through line even if it was forced to construct portions of the line parallel to existing tracks.

The New York and Canada Railroad Company pushed their project forward and constructed thirty-nine miles of track from Whitehall to Fort Ticonderoga as well as made changes to the existing line to Port Henry. The company relocated approximately five miles of the line when ice on Lake Champlain destroyed the timber trestle across Bulwagga Bay on April 18, 1874. The line from Whitehall to Port Henry was opened on November 30, 1874.

In 1875 the Baldwin Branch of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad opened.  This rail connection extended from Montcalm Landing at Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain, through the outskirts of Ticonderoga, and to the rail terminus at Baldwin Dock on Lake George approximately one mile below Cook's Landing.  This completed Ticonderoga's rail connection to points north and south.

The Addison Railroad passenger station at Addison Junction near Montcalm Landing was built in 1868. (Delaware & Hudson Stations, M. Wright collection)

The Central Vermont Railroad opened a station at Fort Ticonderoga and leased the railway for seventeen years.  Iron ore and dairy products became the major freight commodities.  Passengers and tourists had their choice of making the trip either way between Fort Ticonderoga to Plattsburg or Hotel Champlain by rail or by steam with tickets interchangeable.

The railroad became the main method of travel to Ticonderoga for quite some time.  A man from Whitehall recalled in a local newspaper that he attended the Knights of Columbus Ball in Ticonderoga once via train.  He and other men escorted "their girls" on the train to Montcalm Landing.  From there, they took the 2 mile train into Ticonderoga over the Baldwin Branch.  By January of 1874, the town of Ticonderoga was busy.  Train service was excellent with two daily trains moving in each direction.

Traveling salesman and tourists traveling on the Baldwin and Ticonderoga branches to the Ticonderoga area at the turn of the century had a choice of three hotels - the Burleigh House, the Exchange, later known as Ledger's Inn, and the Hall House, known as the Ticonderoga Inn in it's later days.  The Inn, a famous stop over for travelers, was located on north Champlain Avenue near the Ticonderoga Creek and then opposite the paper mill's Island Mill clock tower.  The Ticonderoga Inn was a year-round modern hotel, lighted by electricity, steam heated, with baths, water, and sanitary plumbing.  The Inn's porters met all Delaware and Hudson trains at Baldwin Dock and Montcalm Landing.  The Ticonderoga Inn was destroyed in a tragic fire on March 18, 1953.  The location was later obliterated in 1960 with the construction of International Paper Company's No. 7 machine building.

Here's an earlier view of the Amtrak station. It's hard to see in this picture, but the sign on the top of the structure says "Ticonderoga". (M. Wright photo)

This Rutland Railroad freight didn't quite make it across the drawbridge between Ticonderoga and Vermont on July 28, 1920. (Ticonderoga Historical Society, M. Wright collection)

Delaware and Hudson passengers traveling to the Ticonderoga area frequently stayed at the Ticonderoga Inn. (Ticonderoga Inn brochure, circa 1912, M. Wright collection)

The Baldwin Branch
The junction of the Baldwin branch left the mainline of the Delaware and Hudson 99.62 miles north of Albany at the eastern base of Mount Defiance (also known as Sugar Hill or Rattlesnake Hill) 0.39 miles north of the Lake Champlain Transportation Company’s dock (also referred to as Fort Ticonderoga by the railroad due to its proximity to the "great stone fortress" with the same name) at the mouth of the Ticonderoga Creek.  This junction was under the jurisdiction of the Ticonderoga station (D&H station number 45) located on the Ticonderoga Branch in the Town of Ticonderoga.  This location was also located shortly before the 439’ tunnel under the roadway leading to historic Fort Ticonderoga (Fort Ticonderoga is also known by its French name - Fort Carillon.  It was long thought that the fort was named this because the rapids nearby sounded like the musical peal of bells.  It is argued, however, that the name actually came from the name of a French trader based there).  It then crossed today’s State Route 22 before entering the village limits of Ticonderoga.

Montcalm Landing
In 1873 work began on a new steamship and railroad dock just below Port Marshall near the foot of Mount Defiance.  This facility had some interesting name changes in its past.  It is most commonly known as Montcalm Landing to older residents and historians and Fort Ticonderoga to current residents.  No one seems to know the origin of the Montcalm Landing name.  The name of this station changed between 1911 and 1912 from Fort Ticonderoga to Montcalm Landing.  The name changed again from Montcalm Landing to Fort Ticonderoga between 1933 and 1934 and has remained that way to this day.  Before completion of the dock, Lake Champlain steamers landed at Fort Ticonderoga Landing just below the old fortress.

The tunnel under the road to Ft. Ticonderoga. This can be seen very well from the summit of Mount Defiance. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

Some poor soul (unknown) waits at Montcalm Landing on a cold, winter day. This combination passenger and freight station was built in 1895 and became the main station at Montcalm Landing after the the trestle facility on Lake Champlain. Date and photographer unknown. (M. Wright collection)

This old lantern slide shows the pier comprising Montcalm Landing running on Lake Champlain. Double tracks are clearly visible with both tracks passing inside the main building. (slide, M. Wright collection)

Construction was completed  in the fall of 1874.  The construction contractor was Mr. L. Witney of Keeseville, New York, but the immediate supervision of the work was under Mr. E. S. Adsit of Burlington, Vermont.

This new facility was located 425 feet from shore, 525 feet overall.  The dock was a huge 100’ x 300’ with a footing composed of 1500 pine piles forty feet in length.  Twenty-seven of those were driven into the lakebed.  The piles were capped with heavy, hewed pine timber running crosswise and five feet apart.  On the lake side of the dock was 2500 yards of crushed stone filled in among the piles.  The front was faced with hewed timber and the entire structure was floored with 3” plank.  There were 57 fender piles of white oak and 17 stubbing posts.  Ten tons of bolts were used in its construction.  Two 27’ wide and 1550’ long bow-shaped trestle approaches connected the dock with the shore employing 850 piles.

Double track rails were laid upon the trestle and trains were run out upon the dock and through the main building.

This postcard view shows Montcalm Landing with the full railroad platform on Lake Champlain. This view is from the top of Mt Defiance (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

A public trestle roadway 425’ long and 16’ wide extended from the shore to the dock.  There is an excellent photo of Montcalm Landing on page 145 of Jim Shaughnessy's book Delaware & Hudson.  A passing siding existed at Montcalm Landing from milepost 98.97 to milepost 100.05.  This was known as Defiance Siding in 1928.  By April of 1940, the siding name had simply changed to MD Siding according to employee timetables.  The siding had the capacity to hold 65 cars at that time.  D&H Railroad information from 1969 denoted that the siding was bracketed by LC Cabin and TI Cabin on the south and north ends respectively.  There was a watering facility at milepost 99.35 and also two stock pens according to 1928 timetables.  The railroad trestle over the water was removed around 1928 according to railroad track schematics.

This postcard view shows Montcalm Landing (date unknown) with a passenger train under steam. By this time, the bow-shaped trestle approaches are gone, but the public trestle remains and is used to dock the steamers. Note the small spur track in the distance to the right of the mainline near the dock. The steamship "Vermont" sits at the dock awaiting passengers.  (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

Another postcard view from the Fort View Inn shows Montcalm Landing in the early 1900s. The steamer Vermont is docked. Note the D&H Co. wooden boxcar and wooden hopper car on the siding. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

A passing siding existed at Montcalm Landing from milepost 98.97 to milepost 100.05. This was known as Defiance Siding in 1928. By April of 1940, the siding name had simply changed to MD Siding according to employee timetables. The siding had the capacity to hold 65 cars at that time.

D&H Railroad information from 1969 denoted that the siding was bracketed by LC Cabin and TI Cabin on the south and north ends respectively. Michael Kudish confirms this in his " Railroads of the Adirondacks". There were numerous spur tracks and crossovers at Defiance siding. There was a watering facility at milepost 99.35 and also two stock pens according to 1928 timetables. The railroad trestle over the water was removed around 1928 according to railroad track schematics.

Delaware & Hudson maintenance of way Hi-Rail truck K143 sits on the siding at what was once Montcalm Landing in July 1968. This truck is used for tunnel clearance. The right side of the Fort View Inn is visible at photo left. (M. Wright collection)

The Lake Champlain steamers “Champlain,” “Adirondack,” and “Vermont” used Montcalm Landing to drop off and pick up passengers. 

Near this location was the Fort View House.  The actual history of and purpose of the Fort View House is unknown.  More recently, the Fort View House became a local watering hole and restaurant.  It is still located near the rail siding on State Route 22 and still serves excellent food with a nice view of the railroad tracks. My wife and I stop here whenever we visit the Ticonderoga area.

Montcalm Landing to Ticonderoga
The branch line proceeded southwesterly on the outskirts of the main Village of Ticonderoga towards Baldwin Dock and the nearby Rogers Rock Hotel crossing Cossey Street.  It should be noted that there was no rail line into Ticonderoga proper in 1875 when the Baldwin Branch line was laid.

Shortly after crossing Cossey Street, the railroad served what I believe was a scrap dealer although this is still under research.  A short spur servicing this business split from the main line running southwest for some unknown distance.  This spur existed as late as 1960 although it is unknown if it was actually in service.

The Ft. View House still stands and is now known as the Ft View Inn. This postcard view shows how it looked years ago. Date unknown. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

The main line continued in a southwest direction crossing Mount Defiance Street and The Portage (South Main Street).  Between Defiance Street and The Portage, the railroad serviced a spray painting and woodworking business later to become the Frank Fish Wholesale Groceries business.  Fish sold groceries and coal, both of which the Delaware and Hudson Railroad delivered to his business.  Fish owned large red barns to store the coal as well as a huge house directly behind the wholesale business.  The wholesale business was later purchased and renamed the E. J. Monroe Wholesaler although I am unsure of the date of the sale.  My uncle ended up purchasing the Fish home and lived there until his death.  The home still exists today.  I always knew the wholesale business as E. J. Monroe.

Here is another postcard photo of the Ft. View House at Montcalm Landing. Notice the nice switch stand lamp in the foreground. Date unknown. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

This view of the Ft View Inn is how it appeared in July 1999. The porch, which is now enclosed, is part of the restaurant. (M. Wright photo)

The wholesale building had a loading track on the east side of main track and parallel to it that made for easy loading and unloading through a large freight door.  Approaching from the northeast, trains would throw the switch just before Defiance Street, drop off or pick up railcars and continue just past The Portage where another switch put the train back on the main.

My uncle purchased a home for my grandmother on the west side of The Portage, a short distance from the wholesale, soon after joining the U.S. Marines in the 1940s.  The home was located at the intersection of Defiance Street and The Portage.  One of my aunts continued to live in this home on The Portage after the passing of my grandmother and grandfather.  I spent a majority of my youth playing with my cousin and other friends in this area.  My mother and I eventually moved into this house with my Aunt around 1974.

During my youth, I can remember the freight trains crossing The Portage near E. J. Monroe’s on their way to Pond Lumber and Catlin’s, customers further to the southwest along the line.  One very cold and dark winter day when I was younger, an RS-11 derailed near Monroe’s due to a buildup of heavy ice on the rail.  The track through here was even with the roadway near Monroe’s.  It was very easy to have a derailment here if there was any obstruction on the flange side of the rail.  It took a crew several hours in the freezing cold to get the locomotive back on the rails. 

I can also remember at this same location, the crossing lights (milepost 101.65) on The Portage would always begin flashing every once in a while when there wasn’t a train within 20 miles.  As kids, my friends and I used to look for the train and wave the cars through to help the motorists.  I don’t know who was dumber, my friends and I or the people who believed us and drove over the crossing.  The crossing lights remained for years following abandonment of  the line until they were finally removed.

The Ft. View House still stands and is now known as the Ft View Inn. This postcard view shows how it looked years ago. Date unknown. (Postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

The E. J. Monroe building in June 1988. Monroe's was a "Crane" wholesaler and supplied other plumbing items. The main track and spur ran parallel to the front of the building crossing both Defiance Street (on the building's left) and The Portage. The photo was taken from the front yard of my Aunt's home. We moved into this house with her around 1974. (M. Wright photo)

During my mother's youth in the late 1920s and early 1930s, Delaware and Hudson passenger trains stopped near the wholesale building location to pick up and drop off passengers on the way to Baldwin Dock on Lake George.  This location was known as Academy Station to the local residents and on all railroad timetables (although there was no physical “station”) and was located 2.05 miles from Montcalm Landing.  The name Academy comes from the Ticonderoga Academy which was the first high school in Ticonderoga and located a short distance down the road.  It was constructed in 1858 and remained until 1906 when the Central School (where I attended Kindergarten - the last class to do so) was built upon the Academy's site.  Demolition of the Central School began in the Spring of 2001 and was completed later that summer.  The demolition of Central School was probably one of the saddest changes I witnessed in Ticonderoga. The mainline track continued southwest passing the location of Alexandria Grammar School (constructed in 1896) on the corner of Champlain Avenue (William Street) and Carillon Road (James Street), and crossed Champlain Avenue.

Ticonderoga to Alexandria
The railroad was serviced by a locomotive coaling station located between Pine Street and Newton Street just west of Champlain Avenue.  This is listed in the Delaware and Hudson Company's Jan 1, 1922 Official List as a platform type station having a capacity of 100 tons and capable of holding two freight cars.  Sanborn maps from 1923 show a spur approximately 150 feet in length.  Interestingly enough, Sanborn maps do not show the facility in 1906 and D & H official lists from 1917 only indicate a track capable of holding 2 rail cars and no actual coaling station. 

There were several structures making up this facility including the coal trestle/shed, two oil tanks, two coal tanks, scales, and an office.  The railroad's 1934 official list shows the coaling station as out of service.  This occurred sometime between 1930 and 1934. 

The coaling station still remained in the mid- to late 1970s.  The last time I checked on this around 1992, the tower was gone.  All that remained were the stone piers and trestle footing for the tracks.  Today, I don't believe any of these stone piers remain.

This is the Frank Fish Wholesale Groceries building later known as the E. J. Monroe Wholesale. (date unknown, M. Wright collection)

This is all that remained of the old coaling station in 1992. I seem to remember the tower itself still existed around the mid-1970s. It may have been demolished in 1981 when the line was torn up. (M. Wright photo)

The track crossed Lake George Avenue where the Delaware and Hudson serviced three additional on-line businesses.  The first customer along the main line was the Holden Grain and Feed Company as it was known in 1912, later known as the Catlin Feed Store when I was young. 

Catlin's was destroyed by an early Friday morning fire on September 6, 1974.  The fire was of suspicious origin and endangered several homes as well as the Pond, Lumber and Coal company.  Catlin's was rebuilt at a different location within the village.  The business now resides near the south entrance of Wal-Mart.

In 1912, a spur split from the mainline and proceeded southwest approximately 75 feet until splitting a second time into two spurs.  The right branch of this spur turned slightly northwest and traveled into some undefined business which may have been paper making related.  The left branch of the spur serviced the feed company via a short spur track approximately 300 feet in length. 

By 1960, the spur serving Catlin Feed was much more simplified with only the single track running alongside the feed company.

Ticonderoga's Defiance Hose Company's super pumper pours a steady stream of water on the smoldering ruins at Catlin's Farm Supply. In all, four area fire companies fought the early morning blaze that saw flames shoot 200 feet in the air. (Times of Ti Photo. M. Wright collection)

The main line continued about another 300 feet before another spur branched off to the southwest (right of the main), crossed Lake George Avenue, and immediately split into another two spurs after reaching the west side of Lake George Avenue.  Both branches serviced International Paper Company's mill (formerly the Lake George Paper Company) on the hill overlooking the "B" mill near the Upper Falls. 

The Lake George Pulp and Paper Company was organized in 1882.  The first newsprint ever produced in the Town of Ticonderoga was produced by this mill in 1883.  A very long spur to the right traveled approximately 625 feet past the mill's horse shed, water tank, and into the boiler house on the north end of the facility.  The left spur traveled approximately 360 feet along side the mill's storehouse number 3 and finishing building number 2 ending at the entrance to the plate girder bridge over the Ticonderoga Creek.

This is where the Baldwin Branch crossed The Portage just after E. J.Monroe's. These are the infamous crossing lights that would activate on a whim. Traveling Southwest (right) is Champlain Avenue and then the coaling station. Monroe's is just off the left edge of the photo. Academy Station would have been located in this approximate location. (M. Wright photo)

Baldwin Dock (December 1992). Gone are the glory days of the steamboats docking here with their passengers. The sign on the remaining structure says, "Ticonderoga Landing, Lake George Steamboat Co."  The remaining arcade shown here is now gone.  (M. Wright photo)

The main line traveled another 410 feet, also crossing Lake George Avenue before another switch enabled trains to either continue forward 425 feet along side the mill's storehouse number 2 and finishing building number 1 or switch left (southeast) to continue on towards Baldwin Dock.  The tracks continued no more than 50 feet before access to the second customer was made by way of a switch leading to a spur running approximately 635 feet to the northeast, crossing Lake George Avenue in the opposite direction, and into the Pond Lumber & Coal Company as it was called during my childhood.  It was known as the Wallace Brothers Coal Company in 1912.  This business consisted of a lumber shed, coal shed, office, store, and smaller shed.   by 1960, all these tracks were gone except for the spur into Pond Lumber & Coal.

Continuing southwest along the main line,  immediately after the switch into the coal company, another spur branched off to the south side of the main in a southwesterly direction for about 240 feet.  This spur served the mill's storehouse number 1 on the south side of the Ticonderoga Creek.  The storehouse had a loading platform that extended the length of the building and running along side the track.  The main then passed the village water works pumping station to the southeast and crossed over the Ticonderoga Creek above the Upper Falls on a plate girder bridge that still stands today.  This location is the outlet of Lake George.  Here, Lake George empties into Lake Champlain via the Ticonderoga Creek through a series of water falls.  Once on the west side of the river, another short 175 foot spur left the main traveling slightly northeast before ending shortly before the dam and flumes, just southeast of the ground wood mill "A."  .

The Delaware and Hudson's plate girder bridge spanning the La Chute River still stands today as seen in the July 1999 photo. (M. Wright photo)

All of these tracks still existed in 1912 and 1923 according to Sanborn Fire Insurance maps, but by 1945, Sanborn shows all of the mill spurs and many of the mill structures on the upper falls were gone except for the short 175 foot spur southeast of the ground wood mill "A."  There was also a beater room constructed by the mill sometime between 1923 and 1945 on the west side of this spur.  In the late 1960’s, however, I only remember there being the one spur to Catlin’s Feed.  The mill structures on the upper falls were gone.  

Alexandria to Baldwin
Upon crossing the Ticonderoga Creek, the tracks continued to the southwest crossing Alexandria Avenue on the way to Baldwin dock located 4.77 miles from Montcalm Landing. After crossing Alexandria Avenue, there was a short spur approximately 300 feet long that serviced an oil storage business.  In 1960, this business consisted of a loading platform along the spur with two oil tanks next to the platform.  Another three oil tanks and various structures were located near these.  Oil storage tanks remain in this area today as part of the Ti Oil business. The tracks leading to Baldwin Dock just north of this site were dismantled sometime prior to 1950 according to the maps in my collection.  Maps from 1960 show the line dismantled a short distance after the oil storage business.

Baldwin Dock
Baldwin Landing was initially known as Coates Landing in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. James Coates was a Scottish founder of the largest thread and garment making industry in Europe in the last half of the 1700s. After the Revolution, Coates and his son traveled to the Colonies and established a tailor's shop on this point. The name was changed to Baldwin when the steamboat company purchased the property from Mr. William G. Baldwin in 1863. Other opinions have stated the name comes from a Captain in the British Army during the French and Indian War, named Alexander Baldwin. Baldwin Landing was the northern terminus for the Lake George steamboats. The earlier, smaller steamboats had to run nearly a mile further past Baldwin. The lake is very shallow beyond Baldwin and the boats had to follow a windy, uncertain channel. The Delaware and Hudson Railroad connected Baldwin terminal with the town of Ticonderoga approximately two miles away. Before the railroad, a number of horse-drawn stagecoaches performed the same function. Stage coaches ushered passengers between the Lake George and Lake Champlain terminals through a hilly and rough roadway. The road made two crossings of the La Chute River. The first bridge was along the approach to the upper falls in the small village of Alexandria. The small village of Alexandria was named after Alexander Ellis, a British land baron who purchased wilderness properties from Revolutionary War soldiers who were issued the land in lieu of salary for their service in the colonial army.  The small community of Alexandria once thrived at the northern most aspect of Lake George. The second crossing was over a wooden structure not far from the lower falls in the village of Ticonderoga.

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Baldwin served as the home post for one of two steamships. The Baldwin boat would leave the terminal at 8:00 am and head south picking up and discharging passengers while the second boat would head north performing the same duties. Upon reaching the opposite ends of the lake, the two steamships turned around and repeated the process for the return trip.

Baldwin dock, was quite a popular and busy location during my mother’s younger days (she would have been about 10 when passenger traffic ended in 1932).  She fondly remembers waiving to the passenger trains crossing The Portage near E. J. Monroe’s.  The Lake George steamboats took on and discharged passengers and met passenger trains at Baldwin every day.  Today, steamboat passengers aboard the Mohican may board or disembark at Baldwin by special request.  On a personal note, this author highly recommends the full tour of Lake George aboard the Mohican.  It is a supreme pleasure which should be experienced by everyone.

Perhaps it's difficult for anyone today to fully appreciate the activity at Baldwin over a century ago. However, Thomas Reeves Lord's book, Still More Stories of Lake George Fact and Fancy, relates the report of a noted nineteenth century Lake George writer, Max Reid. Reid stated, "at the landing at Baldwin one is beset with a feeling of loneliness, although it is far from being a lonely place. For a short time each day the place is all action. The steamer is in sight up the lake; the rumble of the incoming train is heard; the steamer approaches with a wide detour and makes for the dock. Men prepare to retrieve the lines and a gangplank is lowered to connect passengers with shore. The train arrives and soon two streams of passengers are hurrying along the dock, from train to steamer and from steamer to train, in needless haste, forgetting that the transportation company is as anxious for their patronage as they are for their transportation. Soon the steamer sounds its whistle and slowly pulls away from the dock; the long train of cars steams away, and this little pocket of the mountains is left to silence once again."

Rails Arrive at Baldwin
Countless tourists loved traveling up and down the island-studded Lake George.  Many came to the region just to relax and enjoy many of the Lake George area hotels.  There were many famous hotels located at various points along Lake George. Hotels such as Rogers Rock Hotel, Glenburnie Club, Silver Bay, Sagamore, Sabbath Day Point, Bolton House, Fort George Hotel, and others.

Baldwin Dock was the northern terminus of the Lake George steamers.  It became desirable for the Delaware and Hudson Railroad to construct a 5 mile rail spur to Baldwin Landing in order to connect the steamboats on Lake George with those on Lake Champlain.  

The Delaware and Hudson Railroad assigns a Dickson-built Mogul No. 313 to deliver the steam yacht "Ellide" to Baldwin Dock in the 1890s.  The boat rides on a flatcar along a makeshift launching track near the steamboat dock. A winch on the flat car allows the boat to roll gently down the ramp into the water.  The D&H maintained a similar permanent "marine track" in the village of Lake George (Caldwell).  (Fred Thatcher photo, Delaware & Hudson by Jim Shaughnessy, M. Wright collection)

In 1875 the Baldwin Branch of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad opened.  This rail connection extended from Montcalm Landing on Lake Champlain, through the outskirts of Ticonderoga, and to the rail terminus at Baldwin on Lake George approximately one mile below Cook's Landing.  This new rail service replaced the former stagecoach line run by Captain William Baldwin.  The rail terminus became known as Baldwin in honor of the Captain.

The railroad structure at Baldwin station was located 4.77 miles from Montcalm Landing and was denoted as "Arcade" in the Delaware & Hudson publication "Passenger and Freight Stations."   "Arcade" actually refers to the metal canopy covering the concrete floor near the old wooden landing.  The Delaware & Hudson Railroad maintained a 54 foot turntable at Baldwin Dock to turn the engines.  This was hand powered and existed as late as 1923.  This was removed sometime before 1928.

A dock facility was built at Baldwin in 1875 and was enlarged and improved over the years.  An extensive number of buildings were constructed as well.  These were all detailed by the Delaware and Hudson in its Lake George Steamboat Company's "The Steamboats of Lake George 1817 to 1932."

Lake Steamships
Baldwin Landing has a rich history of steamboat travel along Lake George.  An increase in lake travel around 1882 necessitated the construction of another Lake George steamship, the Ticonderoga.  Construction materials were placed at Cook's Landing and the Ticonderoga was on the lake by the spring of 1883.  The ship was 172 feet long and displaced 500 tons.  She could run at 20 miles per hour and could accommodate just under 1,000 passengers.  The Ticonderoga met with disaster on August 28, 1906 when it was destroyed by fire just after leaving Baldwin.  The ship made it to Rogers Rock Landing where everyone disembarked safely.  A second Ticonderoga was christened in April of 1906, but this vessel ran along the waters of Lake Champlain.

The Horicon and Sagamore seen here are docked at Baldwin Landing.  This is circa post 1906.  (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

The steamship Sagamore was constructed to fill the gap left when the Ticonderoga was destroyed.  The surviving Lake George steamship, Mohican, could not fulfill its duties and those of the Ticonderoga.   Following the Sagamore's construction, she was found to be too top heavy.  The work of lengthening the Sagamore after her unsatisfactory first season began.  The ship was sent to the "Old Yard" at Baldwin in the winter of 1902-1903, cut in half, and a 20-foot midsection added.  The Sagamore was launched from Baldwin in 1903.

In 1907 the Delaware & Hudson Railroad hauled the hull plates of the new steamship, Mohican II, from the T. S. Marvel Shipbuilding  Company in Newburgh, New York to Baldwin dock.  The hull plates were riveted together at the steamboat company's shipyard at Baldwin.  The Mohican II was later launched from Baldwin on December 14, 1907.

The Horicon lies docked at Baldwin Landing on Lake George while passenger cars of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad discharge passengers and await new passengers for the trip back to Montcalm Landing on Lake Champlain. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

Baldwin's Beginnings - Cook's Landing & The Baldwin Shipyards
The first beginnings of the busy landing at Baldwin can be traced back to Cook's Landing located approximately a mile north of Baldwin on Lake George.  The operation of a steamboat line required a shipyard for the maintenance and mooring of vessels.  From the earliest days of steamboating on Lake George, vessels were repaired at Cook's Landing.  Cook's Landing was not an elaborate site which was appropriate because only one steamboat at a time operated on Lake George until the line was taken over by the Lake Champlain Transportation Company in 1866.  The old Cook's Landing shipyard consisted of a wooden landing stage and two or three frame sheds along the shoreline.  One shed was used as a carpenter shop and the other as an equipment storeroom.  The real estate, which consisted of about half an acre, was rented annually from Mr. Andrew J. Cook who dwelt in a house adjoining the old shipyard.

The Lake George Steamboat Company decided that eventually a change would be necessary for steamboat operations.  On March 17, 1875, the Company purchased a parcel of land (indicated "A" on map) at Baldwin situated about 150 yards west of the railroad terminus from Henry G. Burleigh of Whitehall.  This parcel was approximately 200 feet square and contained about one acre.  Although the company was in the possession of the land at Baldwin, it strangely made no immediate effort to develop the property into a shipyard.  The land remained neglected for 25 years. 

The foreman's house at Baldwin Landing. (Lake George Steamboat Company, M. Wright collection)

The Lake George Steamboat Company still retained Cook's Landing as its repair yard and it was still suitable for the wooden boats of lighter draft still in operation at the time.  Ten years after the first land purchase, the steamboat company purchased a second parcel (indicated "B" on map) of land at Baldwin.  This was about 300 yards farther to the west along the lake front and conveyed to the company on December 10, 1885 by Charles M. Wardner.  The shoreline was only about half as wide as the original parcel.  Its area was about the same due to its greater depth.  The first and second parcels did not adjoin one another.  This second parcel was also referred to as the "Old Shipyard."  The property was intersected by the Ticonderoga - Rogers' Rock Highway.  A small frame dwelling located at the northeast corner of the yard was assigned to the Foreman in charge of the yard.  The Foreman's dwelling was completely rebuilt in 1915.  It was always occupied by the Foreman, Mr. George H. Loomis and his family.

Construction continued with the building of a set of hauling-out ways.  Two frame sheds were also erected for storage of tackle and equipment.

In 1903, the old shipyard at Cook's was abandoned.  From that time until the development of the new shipyard at Baldwin, the steamboats lay at the Baldwin dock for winter quarters and when hull repairs were required.  Ships were then taken to the "Old Yard" and hauled out on the ways for launching.

In the Fall of 1909, management realized that the new steamboats being planned such as the Horicon II would be larger and heavier than any ships previously constructed and a more adequate yard would be required for the launching and maintaining of these boats.  This led to the development of the "New Baldwin Shipyard."

On April 27, 1910, the steamboat company purchased a strip of land running about 600 yards along the lake front from Commodore Harrison B. Moore (indicated "C" on map).  The Company paid a sum of $5,000.00 for the property and also deeded the "Old Yard" to Mr. Moore since it no longer had any need for it.  The Company was quite fortunate in its purchase of the "New Yard" since it was adjacent to the steamboat landing and the highway.  It also surrounded on three sides the original parcel purchased in 1875 and connected the first and second parcels.  There was ample accommodation and proper grade for the installation of hauling-out ways on the western edge of the property.

The Baldwin shipyard shop facilities. (Lake George Steamboat Company, M. Wright collection)

The The Baldwin Dock powerhouse and cradle. (Lake George Steamboat Company, M. Wright collection)

Monday, May 9, 1912, the Lake George Steamboat Company began to move the material and one building from the old boatyard, between the Moore and Smith cottages, to the new site on Coates point.  Plans called for ways to be put in about seventy-five feet from the Tintsman line, which would necessitate the removal of the Cull camp.  The railroad track was extended from the Baldwin dock across the bay to the yard.  It was expected that none of the other camps on the point would be disturbed by the work.

A haphazard condition existed in regard to the ownership of the lake front at the steamboat terminal from 1910 until 1928.  Due to a changing shoreline, some of the shop buildings were partially on Delaware and Hudson Railroad property and partially on reclaimed land abutting the railroad right-of-way over which the railroad claimed ownership.  The Delaware and Hudson Company deeded the strip of land (indicated "D" on map) to the Lake George Steamboat Company on August 24, 1928 in order to remedy this condition.  The railroad, however, reserved to itself in perpetuity, the privilege of maintaining tracks and operating trains over its present right-of-way.

This final transfer of property completed the holdings of the Lake George Steamboat Company at Baldwin and also protected the railroad's investment at that point.  Immediately after obtaining title, the Company began work on the development of the new shipyard.  The first developments were the ways and steamboat landing.  The shed in the "Old Yard" used to store tackle and equipment was moved to the "New Yard" and used for similar purposes.  The storage shed was used in connection with the marine railway.  The old wooden landing was rebuilt with a substantial foundation, concrete floor, and was covered with a metal canopy.  The new landing was "T" shaped and carried out 100 feet from the shore line with a 125 foot face.  A crib was constructed immediately to the north for additional protection in mooring the steamboats.

The Company made a new shore line south of the steamboat landing by connecting a freight dock.  This straightened the curve of the old shore line and added approximately 1,200 square yards to the area of the shipyard.  A small building at the shore end of the steamboat landing, formerly used as a saloon, was converted into a lunch room and cigar stand for Company patrons.

A cluster of small buildings was erected to the south of the lunch room.  These consisted of a boiler house, scrape shop, carpenter shop, storehouse, paint shop, and blacksmith shop.  Later, a small oil house was erected between the carpenter shop and storehouse.  An ice house, lumber shed, and garage were constructed north of the lunch room and completed the buildings in the "New Yard."

The Baldwin Branch of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad terminated at Baldwin Dock. This early photo (date and photographer unknown) clearly shows the dock and supporting facilities that existed at that time.  Note the rail line to the right of the picture. (Post Card Photo, M. Wright collection)

On September 18, 1924, the steamboat company increased its holdings at Baldwin by purchasing a coal dock and trestle at the southerly end of the dock from the American Graphite Company of New Jersey.  The trestle connected to the tracks of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad.  It was leased to the railroad for the hauling of coal to points up the lake. 

The Baldwin Shipyard boundaries contained several acres of desirable shore front property which was not required for operating the shipyard.  The Lake George Steamboat Company leased these lots for the erection of summer cottages.  These leases were first extended to the Company's employees and later to the general public. 

In 1928, this colony included 15 cottages and provided the Company with an annual rental fee of $555.00.  This thriving summer colony developed by the Company still exists today although all cottages and homes are privately owned.

On September 18, 1924, the steamboat company increased its holdings at Baldwin by purchasing a coal dock and trestle at the southerly end of the dock from the American Graphite Company of New Jersey.  The trestle connected to the tracks of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad.  It was leased to the railroad for the hauling of coal to points up the lake.

The Baldwin Shipyard boundaries contained several acres of desirable shore front property which was not required for operating the shipyard.  The Lake George Steamboat Company leased these lots for the erection of summer cottages.  These leases were first extended to the Company's employees and later to the general public.  In 1928, this colony included 15 cottages and provided the Company with an annual rental fee of $555.00.  This thriving summer colony developed by the Company still exists today although all cottages and homes are privately owned.

The Baldwin Marine Railway
In July of 1927, the only equipment for hauling out vessels at Baldwin were the old ship-ways built in 1910 for the launching of the Horicon II.  The hauling of a vessel was a tedious and expensive operation due to the fact that the motive power was furnished by teams of horses.  Seventeen years of use and exposure weakened the structure and the purchase of new equipment was imperative.  A contract was let and the Crandall Engineering Company of Boston was chosen to construct a marine railway to replace the old ship-ways at a cost of $50,000.  The Baldwin marine railway became the model for the larger unit constructed at Shelburne Harbor two years later.  The railway consisted of three units - the cradle, the track, and the power.

The Sagamore slips back into the waters of Lake George after being lengthened at the Baldwin Dock yards. The Mohican I is and Rogers Rock Hotel are in the background. (Fred Thatcher photo, Delaware & Hudson by Jim Shaughnessy, M. Wright collection)

The cradle was the unit upon which the ship rested while being hauled out upon the track and where it remained when not water-borne.  The Baldwin cradle had a total length of 205 feet with an extreme width of 60 feet.  It was equipped with set of eleven keel blocks upon which the ship rested.  On either side of the keel blocks were a set of bilge blocks operated by chains and hand-winches from the docking platform at the outer edge of the cradle.  In order to haul a vessel, the cradle was run to the outboard end of the track where the water was a depth of six to twelve feet over the keel blocks.  The water-borne vessel was centered on the cradle and the prow secured to the inboard end of the cradle.  The cradle was then steadily hauled ashore with the ship settling to rest on the keel blocks with the bilge blocks drawn in against the hull to steady the vessel while it rested in the cradle.  The cradle was constructed mostly of long-leaf yellow pine set on structural steel beams.

The track upon which the cradle moved was 540 feet in length.  Approximately 320 feet of this track was under water.  The track was constructed of re-enforced concrete from the upper end to the water level.  From the water line to the outer end it was built of wood consisting of three tiers of timber resting on piles.  The rails consisted of flat steel plates of various thickness and securely fastened.  The rollers under the cradle were built of cast iron and were nested in frames fifteen feet long connected together interchangeably.

The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company railroad coach #13 "Lake Champlain" is visible at Baldwin Dock.  The Lake George steamer "Horicon" sits docked for arriving and departing passengers.  This picture was captured and preserved on an old stereo card.  (stereo view card photo, M. Wright collection)

The marine railway was operated by steam.  The cradle was hauled over the track by a single chain of manganese steel.  The chain was huge and weighed 7.5 tons.  The engines were a pair of link-motion reversing steam engines.  The boiler operating the railway was the boiler of the old harbor tender Mariquita of the Champlain Transportation Company.  The boiler was originally installed in the Mariquita in 1873.

It required 30 minutes to haul a vessel from the moment it was placed on the cradle until it was high and dry at the inboard end of the track.  The hauling out of a vessel the size of the Horicon II once required nearly a month to get the vessel ashore.  The slow progress was made by seven teams of horses winding the hauling ropes around the winches.  Several broken chains and sheaves were also replaced before the vessel was successfully hauled out.

The total cost of hauling a vessel on the old ship-ways was approximately $3,000 including labor and material.  The cost of fuel and labor on the marine railway was about $40.00.  

Train Service at Baldwin
The Delaware and Hudson Railroad served Baldwin with one passenger train daily during the summers of 1875 through 1932.  A 1927 Lake George & Lake Champlain steamer timetable shows the southbound Lake Champlain steamer Vermont arriving at Montcalm Landing at 12:15PM daily.  A Delaware & Hudson train arrived at 12:15PM at Montcalm Landing to pick up the passengers.  The train then left Montcalm Landing at 12:30PM arriving at Baldwin Dock at 12:45PM.  The Lake George northbound steamer Horicon arrived at Baldwin at 12:55 PM daily.  Departing Horicon passengers could then board the awaiting Delaware & Hudson train which left at 1:00PM for the 15 minute trip to Montcalm landing arriving at 1:15PM.  Passengers then boarded the steamship Vermont leaving at 1:25PM to continue their journey north up Lake Champlain to other points such as Burlington, Vermont.  Passengers who arrived at Baldwin Dock via the Delaware & Hudson train then boarded the Horicon to continue their southbound trip to other points such as Lake George (Caldwell).  The southbound Horicon left Baldwin Dock daily at 1:15 PM.

Baldwin Landing seen here in this August 2001 photo shows the main dock.  Other facilities are off the photo to the left.  (M. Wright photo)

The northbound Sagamore arrived at Baldwin Dock at 7:20PM daily except Sunday and 7:15 PM on Sundays with limited stops.  The southbound Sagamore left Baldwin daily at 7:15AM and 12:50PM on Sundays with limited stops to Lake George (Caldwell).

Baldwin passenger service was discontinued at the end of the 1932 season.  No carload freight lots were recorded as having been delivered in a 1935 railroad report.  Business in 1936 consisted of one carload of freight and one less-than-carload lot.  No car loads and only a few freight shipments from Lake George ships were reported in 1937.  The railroad discontinued service on Lake Champlain ships and rented the Lake George boats to another business.  Mrs. Concetta Stafford of Lake George and Miami, Florida was announced as having purchased the Lake George Steamboat Company in 1939 from the Delaware and Hudson.

Today, Baldwin Landing is a shell of its former self from the late 19th and early 20th century.  Some of the cottages still remain today, but all evidence of railroad operations are long gone.

The Ticonderoga Branch
The New York and Canada Railroad completed its tracks from Whitehall, NY along the west shore of Lake Champlain to Ticonderoga in the fall of 1874.  Following completion of this end of the line, Delaware and Hudson trains connected Ticonderoga with Albany.  Steamboat service through the difficult Champlain Narrows soon became unnecessary and Ticonderoga's economic status increased.

There was no spur into the Village of Ticonderoga when the Baldwin Branch was first constructed in the summer of 1874.  Sanborn Fire Insurance maps show no rail tracks into Ticonderoga from the Baldwin Branch as late as 1884.  There were no railroad tracks to either the Lower Mill, Island Mill, village, or "B" Mill along the river.

A railroad needs capital and the Ticonderoga Rail Road Company raised such capital through the selling of stock.  Shown above is a non-issued stock certificate. (M. Wright collection)

The Town of Ticonderoga (population 5,149; 1990 census) was formed from the old Town of Crown Point, New York on March 20, 1804. Ticonderoga is located 100 miles north of Albany, NY, and 150 miles south of Montreal, Canada. New York State Routes 22 and 74 access the community. The Adirondack Northway (I-87) is accessed via NYS Route 8 and 9N.

The Ticonderoga Railroad
The New York State Legislature granted a franchise for the construction of the Ticonderoga Railroad in 1890.  The Ticonderoga Railroad Company incorporated on December 13, 1889.  By late 1890 - early 1891, construction began on a short line, less than a mile in length, from Ticonderoga to Ticonderoga Junction (Delano Junction) on the Baldwin Branch.  Sanborn maps also confirm tracks into Ticonderoga by late 1890.  Since its opening on February 2, 1891, it was operated by the Delaware and Hudson under an agreement dated August 13, 1890.  This agreement continued during the existence of the Ticonderoga company as a railroad owning corporation.  By April 6, 1891, the Delaware and Hudson was hard at work hauling cinders from Port Henry to put on the road leading from Main Street to the Ticonderoga freight house.  

The Ticonderoga Branch split from the Baldwin Branch at Ticonderoga Junction.  As suggested prior to this point, Ticonderoga Junction was sometimes also known as Delano Junction. Delano (without the junction) was located near Montcalm Landing on the north end of Defiance Siding. Ticonderoga (Delano) Junction was located 1.48 miles from Montcalm Landing (or Fort Ticonderoga as it was later known) and proceeded easterly into the Delaware and Hudson yard in Ticonderoga.

Eventually, the Delaware and Hudson maintained approximately 10.6 miles of right-of-way in the Town of Ticonderoga and another 1.72 miles in the Village of Ticonderoga (yes the two entities were separate until December 31st, 1993 when the village was dissolved into the town).

The First Station and Facilities
For the period of 1875 to 1892, passengers bound for Ticonderoga were discharged at Academy Station.  Academy was a non-agency station and there was no actual station structure at Academy.  The Sanborn maps of 1890 do not indicate the presence any passenger or freight station in Ticonderoga.  In fact, they only indicated a single track extending off the Baldwin Branch and running down First Street (Algonkin St.) on its way to the "B" Mill further to the southwest.

This is a Ticonderoga Railroad schedule published for September 1, 1910.  The Ticonderoga Sentinel newspaper published this schedule in every edition. Notice the Academy stop. (M. Wright collection)

The first Ticonderoga passenger depot was built around 1891.  Insurance maps from 1906 show this original passenger depot located on the north side of the tracks directly across from the freight house on the south side.  This depot would later be rebuilt a short distance to the west.  

Also located near the freight house and to the east were a store house and Union Oil storage tank.  East of the passenger depot and across the tracks from the store house and oil tank were a tool house, shed, coal bunker, and water tower.  Maps from 1912 show these same structures although the oil tank was removed by this date.  A more modern station was constructed around 1913.  Maps from 1923 and those corrected to 1945 clearly show the new passenger station in its new and present day location.  The freight house was still in place at this date, however, there is no evidence that the store house, tool house, water tower, or coal bunker were still in existence.  

The Ticonderoga station, Delaware and Hudson station number 45 (renumbered station 5641 in later timetables), was 2.01 miles from Montcalm Landing.  The D&H maintained a locomotive water supply for steam engines in Ticonderoga.  This gravity fed line was connected directly to the village main and fed water using a 10 inch pipe. This supply station was in existence as late as 1934 and definitely gone by 1952.  Beginning in 1930, this water service was listed for emergency use only.

Train Service to Ticonderoga
There were anywhere from three to seven year-round shuttle trains at any one time connecting Montcalm Landing and the village of Ticonderoga.  An 1891 timetable shows five Delaware & Hudson passenger trains arriving in and departing from Ticonderoga every day.  Train number 201 left Delano Junction at 9:00 AM and arrived in Ticonderoga at 9:06 AM.  Train number 203 left Delano Junction at 10:04 AM and arrived in Ticonderoga at 10:10 AM.  A third train, number 205, left Delano Junction at 12:45 PM and arrived in Ticonderoga at 12:55 PM.  Train number 207 left Delano Junction at 4:06 PM and arrived in Ticonderoga at 4:12 PM.  A fifth train, number 209, left Delano Junction at 6:00 PM and arrived in Ticonderoga at 6:06 PM.  There were also five trains leaving Ticonderoga each day.  Train number 202 left Ticonderoga at 8:40 AM; train number 204 at 9:56 AM; train number 206 at 12:20 AM; train number 210 at 3:54 PM; and train number 212 at 5:50 PM.  There was also one train to and from Baldwin every day.  Train number 1 left Whitehall at 11:30 AM.  It arrived at Delano Junction at 12:40 PM, arrived at Ticonderoga Junction at 12:43 PM, passed Academy Station (stopping only on signal) at 12:48 PM and arrived at Baldwin at 12:55 PM.  Train number 208 then left Baldwin at 1:10 PM daily, passed Academy Station at 1:17 PM (no stop on the return trip), passed Ticonderoga Junction at 1:20 PM and finally arriving at Delano Junction at 1:22 PM.  By 1911, there were still five passenger trains into and out of Ticonderoga daily except Sunday although train numbers (101, 103, 105, 107, 109 into Ticonderoga and 100, 102, 104, 106, 108 out of Ticonderoga) and times had changed slightly.

E-48 finishes the day in Ticonderoga yard working the local freight on May 31, 1947. This unit started life as #882 after assembly by Alco at Schenectady in 1906. It was rebuilt and renumbered to a class E-48 2-8-0 in October 1926. Engine #825 remained on the roster until it was scrapped in March 1950. (Credit: Equipment of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad; Robert A. Liljestrand & David R. Sweetland; Ed Hermanns collection)

A time change went into effect on November 20, 1910 when the Delaware and Hudson modified the timetables in such a way as to be the most convenient for Ticonderoga interests.  Patrons for the south could leave the village depot about 7:30 PM instead of 8:00 PM.  The local time table changed as soon as the order went into effect.  The people of Ticonderoga were upset over one section of the schedule which cut off both north and south sleepers from the Addison Junction stop.

The Great Depression, took a major bite out of many transportation industries including steamer and railroad traffic.  Steamers were buried in piles of red ink losing $132,000 in 1931 and $161,000 in 1932.  In late summer 1932, the Vermont III met its last train at Montcalm Landing ending official rail service.  

By 1965, there was one daily freight train into the Ticonderoga Branch - northbound second class train number 501.  Likewise, there was one freight train departing Ticonderoga each day -  train number 502.  Each of these were daily trains except Sunday.  Train 501 arrived in Ticonderoga at 1:05 PM.  Train 502 left Ticonderoga at 3:05 PM.  Also, by 1950, employee timetables no longer referred to any Baldwin Dock service.  Although D&H freight traffic into the Village had slowed prior to the mid-1970's, it officially ceased in 1981 when the rails were removed.

Delaware & Hudson trains or locomotives were restricted to a speed of 6 miles per hour over all crossings in the Village of Ticonderoga except the Lake George Avenue and Champlain Avenue crossings.  The Public Service Commission dictated the necessity of a member of the crew to flag all movements over the Champlain Avenue north of the freight station and West Montcalm Street grade crossings whenever switching was done.  This would have been primarily for freight operations as trains moved along Algonkin Street and into the Island Mill of International paper (crossing Montcalm Street near the automobile bridge over the La Chute River).  Branch line passenger trains were restricted to 45 miles per hour including the Lake Champlain Avenue and Lake George Avenue crossings leading to the "B" Mill area and Baldwin Dock.  The only other regulation on the Ticonderoga Branch was for close clearances.  Employees were warned to stay off the top of box cars, engines, or other high equipment while movements were being made under these obstructions.  The only close clearance on the Ticonderoga Branch was the unloading crane I-beam over International Paper Company's paper dock track.

This is a 1904 advertisement for Independence Day celebrations at Addison Junction via the train from Ticonderoga. (M. Wright collection)

The Delaware & Hudson Railroad listed its own corporate surgeons and doctors in all employee timetables.  Doctor J. P. J. Cummins (John P. J. Cummins) of 146 Montcalm Street was listed as the D&H surgeon in timetables as early as 1917 to 1967 for the Ticonderoga & Baldwin Branches and for the area north of Dresden to Westport inclusive as well as the Ticonderoga Branch.  The doctor of record changed to T. R. Cummins (Thomas Cummins and John P's son) beginning in 1969.  Although not employees of the railroad, J. P. J. and T. R. Cummins were the physicians referred to in timetables for railroad employees to seek out should they be injured or need medical attention while in the Ticonderoga area.  Thomas Cummins (a.k.a. "Doctor Tom") was also our family doctor for years.

The Railroad and the Paper Mills
The Ticonderoga Creek (La Chute) was formed during the final stages of the last ice age. As the Wisconsin glacier retreated, the river carved a 2-mile channel draining Lake George northwards into glacial Lake Vermont, which occupied the Champlain valley 12,000 years ago. The two lakes served as a highway for native people, who carried their canoes along a portage between the lakes. French and British troops and traders found the pathway at Ticonderoga, which had served Native Americans for thousands of years.

The Ticonderoga Creek became a natural source of power for many early industrial businesses.  It falls 230 feet on its three-mile course as it drains the waters of Lake George into Lake Champlain, a half mile further down stream, over a series of six waterfalls, a drop equal to the height of Niagara Falls. This waterpower has driven mills since French soldiers originally built a sawmill on the river in 1755. In the early 1800s, Ticonderoga emerged as a major producer of ships' lumber, iron and wool. Later, graphite mills ground local ore into black lead for stove polish, crucibles and pencils.

By the late 19th Century, the sawmills and textile factories gave way to pulp and papers mills that dominated the river banks for nearly a century.  The major customer for the railroad on the Ticonderoga Branch was the local paper mill. By 1900, there were five pulp and paper mills in the Ticonderoga area.  Clayton H. DeLano formed the Ticonderoga Pulp Company in 1877 with a small ground wood mill at the lowest of the natural waterfalls on the Ticonderoga Creek.

In March of 1882, the Ticonderoga Pulp and Paper Company formed. It was purchased by the Riordon interests in 1916 and sold by them to International Paper Company in 1925.  International Paper had already acquired paper and pulp mills in the Upper Falls shortly before 1900.  The original name was retained until June, 1930, when International Paper formally assumed management control.  Possibly the most famous order ever filled by the Ticonderoga Mill was for 70 freight carloads of paper shipped by the Delaware and Hudson for the first edition of "Gone With the Wind."

The largest of the waterfalls along the LaChute. This one is near the Mill location. It is also the one my mother absolutely forbid my older brother and I to go near as we lived not too far away from here at one time. (IPCO photo, M. Wright collection)

International Paper produced book and writing papers made from soda pulp and rags. The paper mill continued to produce soda pulp for high grade book papers for sale to other mills until 1940. In 1940, a new papermaking technology made it possible to manufacture bleached and unbleached pulps from hardwoods. The Ticonderoga mill shifted from the soda process to the semi-kraft process, allowing for the production of more profitable grades of offset, text, and other fine papers.

International Paper Company was composed of six separate mills some of which were more industrial than others.  The Company published a general location map of all mills at Ticonderoga in June 1926.  These included Mill "A," Mill "B," Mill "C," Mill "D," Island Mill, and Lower Mill.  Mill "A" was located at the outlet of Lake George and the beginning of the Ticonderoga Creek near the first waterfall (34' drop) and dam at Bridge Street (now Alexandria Avenue).  This was also known as the Lake George Mill.  Mill "B" was located near Mill "A", but slightly northeast of it along the Ticonderoga Creek and past the base of the first waterfall (65' drop). This was the location of the second dam.  Mill "C" was located north of Mill "B" on Lord Howe Street.  This was the location of the third dam along the Creek.  The "D" Mill was the location of a fourth dam a short distance southwest of the the railroad line into Ticonderoga and the Island Mill along Lake George Avenue.  The Island Mill was located north of West Exchange Street and was also the location of yet another dam.  The Lower Mill, likely the most famous of all the mills, was located in Ticonderoga and bounded by the intersection of East Exchange Street and Tower Avenue.  This was also the location of the last waterfall and dam (30' drop) along the Ticonderoga Creek, certainly the most famous and picturesque of the waterfalls in present day Ticonderoga.  

In December 1970, the old mill shut down and the new International Paper mill moved to its present day location outside of the village limits on the shore of Lake Champlain. This marked the first time in 200 years that no industrial activity was taking place on the La Chute River. The new mill was built at a cost of $71 million and was dedicated in October 1971. When I was younger, however, the mill was located right in the village.  There were days when you literally didn’t want to breathe in downtown Ticonderoga because of the horrible sulfur smell.  I have such vivid memories of that smell. They actually bring back many fond memories of childhood. Today...I miss it.

The Rate Reduction Battle of 1909
Despite the benefits of the railroad in Ticonderoga, passenger fares became a concern in the early twentieth century.  The branch road was originally the Ticonderoga Railroad and the franchise for its construction was granted by the New York State Legislature in 1890.  Later, the Delaware and Hudson leased the property and although the distance was short, there was a steep incline and the company always charged a 25 cent fare as was made permissible when the franchise was granted by the state.  The fare was charged each way over the branch line.  

The lower Ti creek (now the La Chute River). Notice the wooden trestle leading into the mill. Earlier in the century, the woodlot area was part of the creek and sailing ships traversed up the river. This area was eventually filled in as seen in this photo. The woodlot was also moved to the other side of the mill. (Ticonderoga Historical Society, M. Wright collection)

A protest against the rate occurred on Tuesday, March 2, 1909, when the Ticonderoga Business Men's Association filed a complaint of the excessive fare with the Public Service Commission.  The New York State Legislature amended the public service law the previous winter giving the Commission jurisdiction over leased lines of railroads.  The complaint was heard by the Public Utilities Commission.  Joseph T. Weed appeared for the Association while Lewis Carr defended the railroad's position.  The Business Men's Association argued that the charge over the 3 mile road was unjust and unreasonable and the group requested relief from the Commission.  Mr. Carr claimed that the Commission did not have the right to change the fare as it was set by the legislature.  Chairman Stevens of the Commission, however, argued that the Commission did have the power to change the rate to which Carr strenuously objected.  Reference was made to the Public Service Commission law, which repeals statutes inconsistent with its provisions.

D&H Coal sold by Wallace Bros. Coal located on Main Street (renamed Champlain Avenue). (M. Wright collection)

Before entering into the case, the meeting was concluded with the Commission requiring each side to submit a brief as to the right of the commission to change a rate of fare.  These briefs were due April 1st.  Following submission of these briefs, the Business Men's Association scored a victory when the Commission's decision was handed down on June 24, 1909 deciding jurisdiction against the railroad.  A hearing on the facts would be required and was subsequently scheduled with the Businessmen's Association and townspeople hoping for reduced rates.

A hearing was held before the Public Service Commission during the week of September 30th.  The attorney for the railroad, Mr. Carr, produced an agreement, executed in 1890, providing that the Ticonderoga Railroad Company was to have 75 per cent of all receipts, which the railroad used for maintenance, interest on bonds, taxes, etc.  The Delaware and Hudson Railroad was allowed 25 per cent for operating the Ticonderoga branch line.  Carr stated that there was an action in New York City in which the Ticonderoga Railroad demanded an accounting of the D&H, and insisted that it was entitled to all receipts after that railroad was paid 25 per cent for operating the road.  It was shown that the passenger receipts in 1891 were $4,259.43, $8,231.64 in 1907, and that receipts for 1908 were expected to be less than 1907.

After a year of fighting, notice of the reduction in fare occurred on Friday, June 24, 1910 by the Ticonderoga Business Men's Association.  The commission made its order reducing the fare on June 21st.  The fare over the Ticonderoga Branch was reduced from 25 cents to 15 cents effective after July 11th.  The Public Service Commission, Second District, officially ordered the Delaware and Hudson Company to file a tariff with the commission reducing the fare on the branch line between Ticonderoga and Fort Ticonderoga from 25 cents to 15 cents.  In an opinion written by Chairman Stevens, the commission found that the rate charged was unjust and unreasonable and should be reduced and that a reasonable charge was the sum of fifteen cents.  In its opinion, the Commission stated that it made every effort to enable it to know the total receipts of the operation of the Ticonderoga road, the total expenses, and a proper division of the same between freight and passenger business, and also all reasonable efforts to ascertain the cost of carrying on the passenger business.  The railroad company, however, had not kept its books in such a shape as would enable it to throw any just and proper light upon the returns which it was in fact receiving from the operation of the railroad.

It was shown that during the year 1907, the number of passenger trains operated over the Ticonderoga Branch was 3,500.  The Commission believed it was unreasonable and unjust that people were required to pay a fare of 25 cents to ride two miles unless the respondent, which alone had knowledge of the subject, could show that the expenses of performing the service justified the charge.  Having failed to give any complete evidence upon this point, the commission held that the rate charged was unjust and unreasonable.  The Commission stated that in reaching their conclusion, it had taken into consideration several facts; the general rate of passenger fare throughout the State, both general and peculiar circumstances, the expense which was within the knowledge of the Commission for doing business of this character, the fact that the D&H carried passengers from Ticonderoga to Baldwin at the same rate as to Fort Ticonderoga, and the further fact that the company had in this case based its position upon the legal proposition referred to rather than upon the merits.

The Delaware & Hudson Railroad, in the hopes of reversing the decision, filed an application for a rehearing.  The application for the rehearing alleged that based on the facts before the Commission, the defendant, the Delaware and Hudson Railroad, was in the enjoyment of a contract right to charge a fare not exceeding 25 cents for each passenger transported over the Ticonderoga Railroad and that it could not be deprived by a decision and order of the Commission.  The Commission found that no evidence submitted to it tended to support the claim of any such contract right.  The statutes of the State which authorized the respondent to charge a fare not exceeding the sum of 25 cents, were not contracts with the respondent or with the Ticonderoga Railroad Company.  They were merely authorizations to charge the named sum.  

The Delaware and Hudson further alleged that the Ticonderoga Railroad Company was interested in the revenue derived from carrying passengers over the branch line.  The Ticonderoga Railroad was authorized by an act of the Legislature of the State of New York to charge a fare not exceeding 25 cents for each passenger carried and it contracted with the Delaware and Hudson Company for the operation of the railroad on the faith of such an act of the Legislature.  Its share of the revenue derived from the operation depended in part upon the rate of passenger fare.  It was a necessary part to any proceedings having, for its object, the reduction of the rate of fare thereon without causing the Ticonderoga Railroad Company to be made a party to this proceeding and giving said company a right to be heard in the matter of said reduction.  The Commission stated in answer to this that the Ticonderoga Railroad Company leased its railroad to the Delaware and Hudson Company for a certain percentage or part of the proceeds.  That in and by their terms of the said lease, the Delaware and Hudson Company was at entire liberty to charge such rates of fare as it might elect, not exceeding certain rates.  There was no agreement in the said lease that the Delaware and Hudson Company should charge any particular rate of fare.  For this reason the Ticonderoga Railroad Company was not a necessary part to the preceding.  The only necessary party to the proceeding was the Delaware and Hudson Company, which was the company making the charge.

The Delaware and Hudson Company alleged that such decision and order are erroneous in that the Legislature of the State of New York, having fixed and established a rate of passenger fare on the Ticonderoga Railroad not exceeding 25 cents, such rates presumed to be reasonable could not be changed except by the Legislature itself.  The Legislature could not delegate to any subordinate administrative body the power to reduce or change a rate which was fixed and established by the Legislature.  The Commission stated in reaction to these allegations that the Legislature had never fixed a rate which must be charged on the Ticonderoga Railroad.  Many years prior, it did authorize the Ticonderoga Railroad Company to charge a certain sum not exceeding a certain amount.  It did not at any time declare or determine that any particular sum was reasonable.  By the Public Service Commission Law, it empowered the Commission to inquire into the reasonableness of all acts and fares, not excepting the one in question, and Section 49 of the Public Service Commissions Laws expressly authorized the Commission to fix a maximum rate not withstanding that a higher rate, fare or charge had been theretofore authorized by statute.  The Commission said it was entirely unable to comprehend how one Legislature could restrict the powers of subsequent Legislatures except by some act in the nature of a contract which could not be violated.

The Public Service Commission denied the railroad's application and announced a new effective date for the order from July 11th to July 18th in order to allow the respondent to sue a writ of certiorari before that date if desired.

The Delaware and Hudson was not about to give up so easily.  Lewis Carr went before Supreme Court Justice Randall J. LeBoeuf on Thursday, July 14, 1910, in hopes of obtaining a stay.  Judge LeBoeuf would not grant the stay on Thursday, but did so the following Friday morning.  Carr had secured his writ of certiorari asking for a review of the Commission's action.  As soon as he received the writ, Carr made application for a stay, arguing that if the order went into effect at once and was declared illegal or unconstitutional by the higher courts, the Delaware and Hudson would loose money on the reduced fare that it could never recover.

On Friday, July 15th, orders from Judge LeBoeuf granted a stay, preventing the Commission from enforcing the order while the case was pending and sending the case to the Appellate Division.  Both Mr. Carr and Judge Hale, of the Public Service Commission, were present that Friday and arguments for both sides were advanced.  The stay issued by the Court specified required that the Delaware and Hudson Railroad issue coupons to all passengers who paid the 25 cent fare so that they could be redeemed if the higher courts upheld the actions of the Commission.

The Delaware and Hudson's appeal was placed on the court schedule on Tuesday, September 13, 1910, but was never called.  Justice Hale was out of the city.  The court clerk informed J. T. Weed, who traveled to the Albany courthouse, that the court would take up the case within a three week time span.  On November 15th, the right of the Public Service Commission to charge a rate fixed by the statute was upheld by a unanimous decision of the Appellate Division, Third Department.  The court decided against the Delaware and Hudson Company, the fare was lowered from 25 cents to 15 cents, and the case was over once and for all.

The court order fixing the rate, or rather, sustaining the 15 cent rate ordered by the Public Service Commission, went into effect on Monday morning, Nov 21, 1910.  Delaware and Hudson officials, however, failed to notify Agent Crowley of the change and, consequently, until about noon, when he received notification from the company, the old price of 25 cents was charged for tickets.

Notable Events Along the Ti Branch
In July of 1909, the Union Oil Company began erecting a large gasoline tank near the railroad crossing near Baldwin.  This tank was eight feet in diameter and thirty feet high.  A smaller tank was erected near the Fort Ticonderoga railroad station.

The Commercial Travelers' Association's Troy Publicity train pulled into Ticonderoga on Thursday, May 5, 1910 at at 4 o'clock in the afternoon.  The train, pulled by a Delaware and Hudson 4-4-0 steam engine number 406, remained standing on the First Street tracks until 6:30 pm.  Throughout the train's stay in the village, the cars were thronged with approximately 2,200 visitors. 

The purpose of the train was to advertise Troy's industries.  To accomplish this task, the train contained five baggage cars, a dining car, a Pullman sleeper and a crew car making a total of eight cars.  The train was equipped with an electric lighting plant and a complete telephone system installed by the New York Telephone Company.  Connections were made with the local long distance office as soon as the train arrived in Ticonderoga. 

The Troy Publicity Train stops in Ticonderoga on May 5th, 1910. It appears that the train is stopped along First Street, which is today known as Algonkin Street. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

The train contained interesting, varied and numerous exhibits.  Nearly all of one car was dedicated to exhibits of the shirt and collar manufacturer of Troy, among them were Hall, Hartwell & Company, who operated the local shirt factory in Ticonderoga.  Other exhibitors included Emma Willard School, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institution, Hudson Navigation Company, canned goods and teas by Edwin Darling & Company, cigars by Quinn Brothers, Northern News Company, brushes by the A. L. Sonn Company, Troy Record, Troy Times, bathroom fixtures and furnaces by Aird-Don Company, oriental rugs and silks by G. V.  S. Quackenbush & Company.  The train departed for Port Henry and other northern villages on Friday morning.

On Thursday, September 1, 1910, the Delaware and Hudson Railroad had a crew of men busy in the construction of a new road to the Baldwin dock in order to eliminate the steep, crooked, and sandy hill used at that time.  The new road was constructed along the side of the hill in back of the clubhouses.

The Delaware and Hudson Railroad went on strike on Monday, January 19, 1914 due to difficulties associated with the payment of back wages to men whose discharge was connected to a previous strike.  The cessation of rail service was driven home to the people of Ticonderoga and other villages during the one day strike.  The local branch engine stood hissing idly on a sidetrack near the station the entire day.  No mail or express material or freight was transported into or out of  the village.  Locals who wanted to get away were unable to do so.  Likewise, individuals seeking access to the village via the railroad were also disappointed.  Grocers drove to Fort Ticonderoga to pick up their shipments of meat coming over the Rutland Railroad.  The strike soon ended and the January 22, 1914 issue of the Ticonderoga Sentinel reported, "Thus, after having been shut in from the outside world for a day, it was with pleasure that the melodious shriek of the whistle and the merry jingle of the bell on the local engine were heard on Tuesday night.

Ticonderoga Snow Trains
The Delaware and Hudson once ran a series of "Snow Trains" from Albany and Schenectady to North Creek and Ticonderoga.  My information on this subject is somewhat sketchy.  Most of my information comes from a few Delaware and Hudson Bulletins as well as an article written by Stephen Wagner, a fellow Bridge Line Historical Society member, in the Society's October 2002 "Bulletin."  In this article, Stephen describes the information from a 1938 Delaware and Hudson snow train brochure.

New England snow trains began in 1931 when the Boston and Maine Railroad ran the first regular train.  The B&M carried 8,371 passengers that winter.  In 1935, that railroad carried 24,240 passengers, 80% of which were skiers.  Overall, the New England railroads carried 35,000 skiers to New England ski areas in 1935.

The Delaware and Hudson long referred to the Adirondack region as a "Summer Paradise. In an attempt to have the area become equally famous as a "Winter Playland," the railroad began Snow Train operations as an experiment by the railroad on March 4, 1934 at the request of the Schenectady Wintersports Club. These were successful from the start and were scheduled for every Sunday through March 8th of that year, weather conditions permitting. The trains originated from Albany and Schenectady on alternate weeks and running to North Creek. In addition to these trains, trains also originated from New York City to North Creek every two weeks. These trains became so successful, in fact, that five additional "Snow Trains" were operated in 1935, four from Schenectady and one from Albany on five consecutive Sundays between January 20th and March 10th.

Delaware and Hudson "Snow Train" arrives at the station in the Village of Ticonderoga on a very cold winter day. (date unknown, M. Wright collection)

The Delaware and Hudson railroad advertised Ticonderoga as "the new winter sports center," providing skiing, snowshoe trails, toboggan slide, ice fishing, and a municipal skating rink.  On a side note, I had an uncle who ice fished, and I remember to this day the smell and taste of lightly breaded and fried smelt cooking in a pan.  The ski trails all had historical names such as Abercrombie's Run, Allen's Surprise, Arnold's Revenge, Black Watch Trail, Campbell's Ghost Trail, Mad Anthony, Rogers' Glide Trail, and the Lord Howe Slalom Run.

The 1938 brochure related the enthusiastic work done by the Ticonderoga Snow Club, which included seven trails and a slalom course that were opened on a chain of four mountains near historic Fort Ticonderoga known as "The Three Brothers" and the "Cobble."  The trails were located a short distance from the Delaware and Hudson station where the snow trains rested.  Patrons then took buses for a 25¢ bus from the station to the top of the mountains.

The March 1936 Delaware & Hudson Bulletin stated that the Gore Mountain Ski Club had laid out numerous new ski trails, a toboggan slide, and skating rink as well as a new "innovation" - a ski-tow, "an endless rope and pulley device, powered by an automotive motor.

The 1938 season brochure advertised a total of four trains, two each leaving the Albany and Schenectady locations.  The two morning trains left at 8:00 am.  The Albany trains made intermediate stops at Watervliet, Cohoes, and Mechanicville.  The two Schenectady trains may or may not have been combined until reaching Saratoga at Franklin Street and Grand Avenue.  After Saratoga, the train or trains proceeded without stops.  The Albany trains reached Ticonderoga at 10:55 am and then North Creek at approximately 11:16 am.  Southbound trains left the Ticonderoga station at 6 pm reaching Schenectady at 8:20 pm and then Albany at 8:55 pm.  Trains departing North Creek arrived at Schenectady around 8:55 pm and then Albany at 9:05 pm.

Schenectady passengers obtained "Snow Train" tickets from local area sporting good stores.  Albany passengers were able to purchase tickets in advance at Delaware and Hudson ticket offices.  These train schedules were always subject to change or cancellation as the activities were naturally very dependent upon the weather and snow conditions.

The "Snow Trains" included coaches, a dining car, and a baggage car for carrying winter sports equipment. The entire train stood at the station all day, a virtual "hotel on wheels." It was available for lunch, lounging, and resting as the cars were kept heated for the comfort of all the excursionists. Upon leaving the train, the crowd divided up into smaller groups of skaters, skiers, tobogganers, and snowshoers.

The Delaware & Hudson Railroad issued this brochure for the firts ski train. (M. Wright collection)

Everyone enjoyed the Delaware and Hudson's "Snow Trains." Many of the younger people who rode the trains, although they had traveled thousands of mile by automobile, had never before traveled anywhere by train. The April 1936 Bulletin, reported that in one group of eight high school girls, only one had ever ridden a train. The remaining seven found the travel to North Creek by train as thrilling as the sports they enjoyed at their destination.

The Bulletin also reported that an Albany physician who rode the "Snow Train" on February 3, 1935 stated he ordinarily traveled by automobile, but would not consider driving to the Adirondacks. As much as he enjoyed winter sports, the trip itself, over icy roads would simply consume too much energy that he would be over tired at the end of the day's strenuous exercise if he had to drive home. Using the train meant that someone else did the driving while he sat, relaxed and enjoyed the scenery. Furthermore, he stated, that if the Delaware and Hudson Railroad said he would be home in Albany at 8:45, he could depend on it, which was more than he could say about his or any one else's driving.

Excursions Along The Ti Branch

The Ticonderoga Depot
The first passenger station in Ticonderoga was Academy Station.  Academy was actually located on the Baldwin Branch near the present day E. J. Monroe Wholesale parking lot at the corner of Defiance Street and The Portage (South Main Street).

As previously mentioned, Academy Station was a non-agent station and had no physical “station”.  The name came from the Ticonderoga Academy which was the first high school in Ticonderoga and located a short distance down the road.  It was constructed in 1858 and remained until 1906 when the Central School was built upon the Academy's site.  The Central School was in turn demolished in the summer of 2001.

The first depot (upper right in linked picture) in downtown Ticonderoga was constructed between 1884 and 1890.  The Delaware and Hudson's Passenger and Freight Stations states this date as 1891.  This was originally a combination passenger and freight house.

In 1898, a notice appeared in the August 11th edition of the Ticonderoga Sentinel stating, "There is talk of having an entertainment to raise money to improve the 'excuse for a depot.'...It is a disgrace and should be looked after by the railway company...It is only used a few months of the year."  D&H officials did not give up the project of building a new station.  A railroad company official arrived in Ticonderoga around January 30, 1913 looking over the proposed location of the new station.  It was hoped at that time, that the Business Men's Association would take up the subject of building a new station.

In this postcard view of the new Ticonderoga Depot (date unknown although there is a horse and wagon in the photo), one can see the very end of the loading ramp near the old depot (extreme right edge, just below rails). The old depot was used as a freight depot following construction of the new facility. The brick building in the left background is the Defiance Hose Company fire department. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

Delaware and Hudson "Snow Train" arrives at the station in the Village of Ticonderoga on a very cold winter day. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

On Monday, May 12, 1913 the work of improving conditions at the Ticonderoga railroad station began.  This included enlarging the rail yard and eventually building a new station and freight house.  Part of the tools and apparatus used in the work arrived during this week.  The knoll on the Hooper place, recently purchased by the Delaware and Hudson Railroad was cut down and the gully portion of it filled in to permit laying tracks on both sides of the new freight house, which was planned to be located closer to Main Street.

The building of a new station required the removal of Mrs. Riley's residence, also the property of the railroad company.  Under the terms of the sale of the house, it was to be vacated by June 1, 1913.

The D&H stated that the planned improvements would give Ticonderoga a station and a yard in keeping with its size and its importance as a shipping point.  By September 18th, the D&H was rushing work at the railroad yard with grading well along towards completion.  Construction of the new station in the rear of the Riley house was scheduled to start at an early date.  The Fair brother house, one of the old landmarks of the village was in the process of demolition, and the Riley house, which was bought by D. J. Crowley, station agent, was expected to be moved to his lot on Williams Street.  The old freight house was moved back a few feet after the railroad decided to continue using it until such time as a new building could be erected to take its place.

On October 16, 1913, the railroad announced that work on the new station would begin at once.  The Riley house sitting on the site to be occupied in part by the new station was removed by D. J. Crowley, the purchaser.  After having changed the designs several times, the Delaware and Hudson finally decided upon a station that, with its surroundings, would be a decided ornament for the village and a vast improvement over the old building, which would be moved across the tracks and used until the new building was completed.  While the plans of the new station were not obtainable, the building's construction was stated to be of concrete and brick, the concrete running up to the windows.  The building would be considerably larger than the then present station.  It would have commodious freight and baggage rooms besides the ticket office and a large waiting room.  The surroundings of the buildings conformed in attractiveness to the building itself.  Plans called for an arcade, with seats, broad concrete walks around the station and running to the street and, to add to the beauty of the whole, a grass lawn and flower bed between the station and the street.

The first depot was built in 1891 as a combination station. It eventually became a dedicated freight station once construction was completed on the new Ticonderoga station in 1913-14. The D&H book "Passenger and Freight Stations" erroneously states this combination station was moved across the tracks and made into a freight house. In fact, it never moved. (Delaware & Hudson Stations, M. Wright collection)

This most recent July 1999 view of the Ticonderoga depot finds PRIDE no longer in residence. Depot Street is now paved instead of the dirt road I remember and follows the old Ticonderoga Branch right-of-way. (M. Wright photo)

October 19, 1913, the old railroad station was moved across the tracks to a point directly opposite its old location.  A large force of men were busy on the new station and walks  The concrete foundation for the new station was partially completed and the concrete curbing lining the walk from the water tank to the street was being poured.  Plans called for the removal of the old water tank with a standing pipe erected in its place.  

On October 23, the job of moving the Riley residence to D. J. Crowley's lot on William Street was nearly complete.  The house now sat in front of the lot while men were engaged in building a foundation for the house.  The work of moving the home was at a standstill days before this due to rain. 

This is all that remained of the original depot during the late 1970s. This freight platform is a portion of the original structure. (M. Wright photo)

By November 30, 1913, contractors erecting the new station were taking every advantage of the nice weather to push the work along.  The brick work on the station reached a point where one could gain an idea of what the finished structure would look like.  As the Ticonderoga Sentinel article stated, "That it is to be a gracefully designed and pretty station is evident, and its attractiveness will be increased by the broad cement walls and grass lawns around it."  With the increased number of tracks and the removal of the Riley and Fair brother houses, and also the water tank, the railroad yard did not look the same.  "It looks like a real railroad yard in a live village."

Hopes for the opening of the new station on January 1, 1914 fell when it was announced to Agent Crowley that the station would not be ready for occupancy on New Years day.  Moving from the old to the new station was delayed a few days.  Malaney & Blanchard, the plumbing and heating contractors, needed to complete their work on the interior of the building on January 1st.

The new railroad station opened on January 28, 1914.  Tickets for the evening trains were sold that day.  This new station became what many people in Ticonderoga identify today as the Delaware and Hudson railroad depot in downtown Ticonderoga (D&H station number 45 as previously mentioned).

A 1936 Delaware & Hudson employee timetable lists the Ticonderoga station open from 8 AM to 5 PM Monday through Saturday.  The station was closed on Sunday.

Spring is trying to break out on this March 8, 1968 morning, but there's still a little snow on the ground as Delaware and Hudson RS-2 #4021 idles next to the Ticonderoga station. The 1500 HP Alco unit has been assigned switching duties in the Ti yard today. Built in November of 1949, the 4021 will only serve another 4 years with the D&H. It was sold to Precision Engineering in January 1972. (M. Wright collection)

With final construction of the new station completed, the older depot/freight house was used for a freight house while the newer depot was used strictly for passenger service.  I have an aerial photo of the town and the older depot is quite evident.  This photo, from a 1962 Ticonderoga Village report, clearly shows three freight cars in the process of unloading at the old depot with others on the team track.  This was torn down soon after and certainly before the 1970s although a portion of the loading platform remained for several years.

This is a view of the depot during the winter of 1992. At this time, the depot was being used by the PRIDE organization of Ticonderoga which moved into the building in October 1990 after years of disuse and neglect. (M. Wright photo)

When the Central Vermont Railroad's lease terminated, that railway began to deteriorate due to poor maintenance procedures.  Once the Addison Junction shut down, the link between New York and Vermont over Lake Champlain ceased to exist.  As a result of this, passenger service to Ticonderoga was reduced to three times a week and finally, due to the prominence of the automobile and highway system, ceased completely in the 1950s.

Freight service continued until the late 1960s - early 1970s mainly for paper mill business.  The Delaware and Hudson continued to own and operate the Ticonderoga depot as the Delaware and Hudson’s freight office for the International Paper Company.  This station still stands today and has now been renovated for business use.

My mother worked for International Paper’s Accounting Department in both the old and new mill when I was much younger.  The original accounting department  building is now the Elk's Club building in Ticonderoga.  She was occasionally required to call the railroad depot to come in and pick up payments for freight bills submitted by the railroad.

The Ticonderoga Depot
The Ticonderoga depot is a ten bay by three bay, one story, hip roofed brick structure with extended eaves.  The whole depot sits on a tapering concrete base.  The hip roof extends beyond the body of the building on the west and is supported by four wooden posts resting on the gray concrete base.  The posts feature decorative molding at the capitols.  The ceiling of the overhang is finished with tongue and groove paneling.  The west façade is ten bays wide and is composed of a large window, door, large window door, four small windows and two large windows.

Yet another view of the depot in April 1981. The tracks still remain, but the scrap company will be ripping them up soon. The depot was in pretty sad shape during this time. Windows were boarded up although, in this shot, the grass had finally been mowed. Work began to renovate the depot in April of 1990. (M. Wright photo)

Another view of the Ticonderoga depot in July 1999. This view looks to the northwest. The Ticonderoga U.S. Post Office is in the background. (M. Wright photo)

The small windows are six-over-one, double hung, opaque sashes.  The large windows are twelve-over-one, double-hung, sash windows.  The east facade has only a wide central door.  The south façade is divided into nine bays with a three-sided bay window that served as a ticket window.  All the windows are nine-over-one, double-hung sashes.  To the left of the bay window, is a large window and door.

To the right are three windows and a door.  The door is identical to the door on the west facade.  In the interior there is a small waiting room.  To the south are the rest rooms.  To the north is the ticket and freight office.  East of the ticket office is the freight storage area.

The Ticonderoga Rail Yard
The Ticonderoga rail yard grew from a single track to a multitude of tracks in a fairly short period of time.  Sanborn Fire Insurance maps from 1884 show First Street untouched by any rails as expected.  Eventually, the main yard in Ticonderoga consisted of several tracks.  By 1895, there was more than a single track.  The main track into the village split from the Baldwin Branch at Delano Junction and ran past the present depot to the west, down First Street (Algonkin Street).

This 1945 aerial photo shows downtown Ticonderoga, the paper company and Delaware and Hudson rail yards. The old depot is about middle left. There are two or three freight cars being unloaded. The team track is to the left of the old depot. Notice the freight cars being unload there. The Ticonderoga paper mill takes up most of the center of the photo, top to bottom. The Dixon Crucible complex is center right of the photo. The Ticonderoga Branch mainline comes from the bottom left, goes through the yard and up the photo across Algonkin Street to the wye leading to both the upper falls mills (left) and the island mill (right). (IPCO photo, M. Wright collection)

By the time the December 1890 maps were released, Sanborn showed a single track into the Village of Ticonderoga. Listed as the "Branch Track of D. & H. Co. R. R.," the track left what would eventually become the rail yard, crossed Main Street (Champlain Avenue), and proceeded down First Street.

Sometime between 1891 and 1895, the railroad installed a switch at the corner of Depot Street and Main Street where the track entered the yard from the west.  This spur branched off to the south side of the main and traveled parallel to the main for approximately 560 feet.

By 1906, the yard facilities included a freight house with a 200 foot loading platform, passenger depot, store house, oil tank, tool house, coal shed, and water tower.  The passenger depot rested directly across from the west end of the freight house loading platform during this period.  Maps from this period showed that the spur track off the main and parallel to it served the freight house, store house, and oil tank which were constructed by this time.  Another switch was installed along the main track approximately 425 feet to the east of the switch at Depot and Main.   Here the track formed a wye with one leg proceeding northeast to the lower mill.  The second leg proceeded 125 feet to the southeast and joined with the track serving the freight house.

There were no major changes in 1912. The yard tracks remained unchanged.  It was during this period however, when the new station was constructed and put into service.  The water tower was also removed during this period, replaced by a simple water pipe.

A few changes occurred by 1923. The most notable of these changes was a long team track that split from the freight house track.  It began some 650 feet east of the freight house and proceeded running west for approximately 900 feet, passing the rear of the freight house, and ending about 75 feet west of the freight house.  A portion of the freight house loading platform on the west side of the building was gone by this date.  The water tower, store house, and shed no longer showed on insurance maps from this period.  The new passenger depot was in place after having been built a bit further to the west and closer to South Main Street.

Between 1945 and 1960, the rail yard grew to its most complex arrangement with the main track and several yard tracks serving the freight and paper making industry.  South of the main track were the two parallel tracks and the house track behind the old freight house.

In 1960 the Ticonderoga rail yard consisted of the main branch line track splitting from the Baldwin Branch at Delano Junction and traveling slightly southwest before turning slightly northwest into the main yard.  The switch at the corner of Depot and Champlain Avenue still led to a track running on the south side of the Ticonderoga Branch main and parallel to the main until it joined with it again about 800 feet to the east.  A switch about 75 feet east of the first switch led to another track south of the main and parallel to the first two tracks.  This one ran about 600 feet east past the old depot and joined with the track to the north of it.  The team track split from this track traveling in a westerly direction and ran approximately 600 feet to the west behind and to the south of the old depot.

One track left the Ticonderoga main and ran approximately 1100 feet to the east on the north side of the main until it ended on the west side of High Street a short distance before the main crossed Cossey Street.  There were large woodpiles right next to this track on its north side.  The switch to the lower mill split from the Ticonderoga main about 175 feet west of the previous track.  This track ran to the east approximately 100 feet on the north side of the main before splitting into two spurs.  The spur furthest to the south split into three separate tracks.  Two of these ran parallel to one another and traveled in an easterly direction near the woodpiles.

The mill received wood by rail and by truck (the trucks were a lot of fun to drive behind during the winter).  Large paper mill cranes lifted the wood loads from pulpwood cars and gondola cars as well as the trucks and deposited them on these large piles.

There were several of these woodpiles in the International Paper Co. Woodlot. The woodlot was located East of the depot. In this April 1960 view, one of the wood cranes moves a load of wood. (IPCO photo, M. Wright collection)

There they would sit until they were sent into the mill for the paper making process.  These large woodpiles also gave the paper mill a small supply of wood to continue paper making should there be a future shortage.  There was also a conveyor system which moved the logs.  The third track traveled to the northeast approximately 300 feet.

The second large spur furthest to the north headed towards the lower mill and also split into two tracks that ran parallel to one another for about 600 feet before joining again.  This single track, the roadbed still visible today, then proceeded east toward the lower mill, passing the mill's chip facility and crossing High Street before ending about 600 feet past the switch leading to the lower mill.  Trains pulled their loads east past the switch and then shoved cars west into the lower mill crossing East Montcalm Street.

Lower Mill Tracks
The Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Mill's, later the International Paper Company's, lower mill consisted of a variety of structures which changed during this period.   The Delaware and Hudson accessed the lower mill via a track from the main yard, which then had a spur crossing East Exchange Street and entered the mill.

There was one spur from this main yard track, which served the lower mill.  This spur branched off the main to the northeast along a hill above East Exchange Street.  It curved to the southeast and crossed High Street continuing for another 100 feet before ending shortly before Cossey Street.

By 1906, maps clearly show the track entering the lower mill consisted of a switch just prior to the track crossing East Exchange Street.  From this switch, two main tracks entered the mill in a westerly direction, One track traveled to the southern portion of the mill while the second entered the northern portion of the mill.  The southern track traveled approximately 350 feet past the mill’s chip conveyor and into the freight and chemical mill before a spur split from this track.  This spur branched to the north side of the main track and passed the south walls of the evaporating building and liquor building before ending near the digester house and store house #1.

The chipper facility in April 1960. East Montcalm Street runs between the chipper and the railroad roadbed. The tracks entering the photo from the right edge lead from the main yard and run to the East where they dead end near High Street. The spur into the lower mill area is along this route. The southeastern edge of the woodlot can be seen in the upper right. (IPCO photo, M. Wright collection)

This is where the tracks crossed East Montcalm Street going into the lower mill. You can still see the scars on the road way where two sets of tracks begin to diverge from right to left into the mill. One track went beneath the lime kiln and the other stopped near the storage tanks. (M. Wright photo)

The main spur into the south side of the mill continued another 200 feet before it split into parallel tracks for approximately 250 feet.  Both tracks now passed between the south walls of store house #1, rag room building, and #1 beater engineering building.  The north wall of store house #2 faced these two tracks.  After joining into one track again, this main south side spur proceeded another 175 feet ending near the southwest corner of the finishing building.

The track serving the north side of the mill split into two tracks and proceeded west past the reclaiming building and into the side of the mill facing the Ticonderoga Creek.  Of these two tracks, one track traveled over a coal trestle for more than 475 feet. The railroad delivered coal dumping it in two large coal bins using this track.  The track ended near the chip room building.  The second track paralleled the first track, crossing the coal trestle and extended approximately 700 feet. This second track passed the north walls of the chip room building, #5 machine room, #2 beater engineering building, engineering room, and ended near the gate house at the lower falls dam.

Maps indicate a loading platform in use along the track running along store house #2 in the lower mill.

By 1945, the spur tracks serving the south side of the lower mill had changed.   The one track that had passed the south walls of the evaporating building and liquor building before ending near the digester house and store house #1 was removed.  The old tracks serving the north side of the mill over the coal bins were shortened by approximately 375 feet.

A Delaware and Hudson crane assists in the construction of International Paper Company's lime kiln. (IPCO photo, M. Wright collection)

When International Paper Company installed their new lime kiln, some of the rails had to be moved to make room for the new facility. Seen here in April 1960 are the tracks to the lower mill paper freight and chemical mill freight service. Notice the Lehigh Valley boxcar which never moves during this effort. (IPCO photo, M. Wright collection)

These tracks serving the southern side of the mill had to be slightly relocated in 1960 for installation of a new lime kiln.  The kiln, with a total length of 250 feet, was shipped to Ticonderoga by way of the Delaware and Hudson in three sections using eight flat-cars.  A Delaware and Hudson crane assisted in the construction.  The entire construction process required some planning so the chemical raw material supply would be sufficient for four days while the tracks were out of service.

The northern leg was about 500 feet in length. It split into three separate tracks after crossing East Exchange Street. These tracks passed the Mill's storage tanks on their way into the heart of the mill. Several times, there would be tank cars or open hopper cars parked near the storage tanks.

West from the Junction
Traveling west from the Ticonderoga depot and yard, the track proceeded along Algonkin Street (originally named First Street and no, it wasn’t spelled like the Indian name "Algonquin" for some reason) to the Ticonderoga Creek turning sharply southeast and forming the eastern leg of another junction.

I have to say here that the Ticonderoga Creek or the “Crick” as we called it as kids, is now renamed the La Chute River.  This was its original French name and why it took so long to change it back is a mystery to me.  Perhaps “Crick” is a more appropriate name, however, as the water always looked a bit green to me before all the mills left town and more stringent pollution controls were put into effect.  The name change was one of those Bicentennial things.  Today you would call it politically correct.

When I was about five or six, my mother and I moved into a home on Algonkin Street owned by my Uncle.  Mom let me have the largest bedroom because it overlooked Algonkin Street and the railroad track.  The Delaware and Hudson "shared" the track (as if an auto could compete with a multi-ton diesel electric locomotive) leading from the Ticonderoga yard at Depot Street with local automobile traffic.

The rails traveled west down the center of Algonkin Street for about 1000 feet to Lake George Avenue.  This unique arrangement became quite interesting when the railroad switched the yard.  The Alco RS-2s and 3s would pull long trains all the way down the street causing cars to hug the side of the road or turn around and take another route.  I vividly remember a quite colorful conversation between a local cab driver and a locomotive engineer.  I think I picked up 50% of my street language that day.  Each was screaming that they had the right of way.  These lengthy and slow switching operations also stopped north-south traffic on Champlain Avenue into the busy village.  There were also no gates or flashing lights at this location.  I will always remember that characteristic slamming of freight cars as the locomotive stopped or reversed motion during switching.  Anyone who has spent any time around a freight yard will know exactly what I mean.

The Delaware and Hudson delivers several large flat car loads (set of 8x16 three stage brown stock washers with repulpers and knotters) to International Paper in 1959 and parks them in the main yard. The track on the other side of the two tank cars leads to the right along Montcalm Street, passing the chipper facility on its way to the lower mill. (IPCO photo, M. Wright collection)

I remember one stormy winter day (cold winter days seem to be a common thread in my memories) around early evening when a local woman, infamous in the town for her great driving inabilities, lost control of her car coming down Champlain Avenue and smashed it right into the switch stand at the beginning of Depot Street.  This was the first switch into the yard. With it out of action, no yard switching could be completed at all. Needless to say, the railroad was out of action for several hours. Luckily, she was unhurt.  It’s funny now, but I remember her being extremely embarrassed at the time (and probably afraid that her husband would find out about yet another automobile tale).  Come to think of it, it was actually funny then too.

Ticonderoga Rail Accidents
Ticonderoga had its share of railroad related accidents and mishaps.  On Monday afternoon, April 13, 1891, a broken flange on a boxcar derailed the car on the fill just above the depot and was thrown down the embankment into a brook.  The damaged track was quickly repaired.

A baggage car and coach used on the Ticonderoga Branch were put out of commission on Saturday, January 22, 1910 in a collision at the station.  The coaches were being dropped down to the station from the siding.  The engineer, who didn't see them, backed into them while traveling at a fairly fast speed.  A wrecking crew was brought to Ticonderoga from Whitehall to clear up the small resulting wreck.

While pulling into the Ticonderoga station on February 13, 1913, the afternoon train with the engine went off the track at the switch into the freight house siding.

The kiln was secured to several New Haven Railroad flat cars and shipped via the Delaware and Hudson to the Ticonderoga paper mill. (IPCO photo, M. Wright collection)

A wrecking crew was sent to Ticonderoga from Whitehall taking most of the day and into the evening before the engine was back on the rails and the damage repaired.

At 7:30 on Tuesday morning, December 9, 1913, Mrs. Hattie Hadley, was run down by a local switch engine crossing First Street and Lake George Avenue in Ticonderoga village.  The accident required the amputation of one leg above the ankle and another just below the knee.  She was taken to Moses hospital where she recovered.  Mrs. Hadley was on her way to the shirt factory where she was an employed when the accident occurred.  Doctors Cummins and Knapp were summoned to the scene and she was taken to Moses hospital.

On the morning of January 1, 1914, the local branch engine and engineer took a rest until 10 o'clock due to a freight car running off the track near Montcalm Landing the previous evening.  The local crew worked into the night getting the car back on the rails.  The engineer, Mr. Lowman, finally used up the sixteen hours that the law permitted him to work for one shift and so he was compelled to rest for eight hours.  The eight hour rest ended at 10 o'clock.  At that time, the trainmen hustled to catch up with their work.

On the evening of Monday around 8 o'clock, September 1, 1914, Michael Welch, a resident of Ticonderoga, received fatal injuries when he was struck by a train on the railroad tracks near Montcalm Landing.  He had returned from Labor day celebrations in Port Henry and was walking along the Ticonderoga Branch tracks to his boarding place near Montcalm.  The Ticonderoga train was backing down to the Montcalm station when he stepped over onto the main line track to get out of its way, not noticing a freight train that was bearing down on him and not hearing the frantic cries of the conductor of the Ticonderoga train.  The freight train struck him and threw him from the track, but did not run over him.  Welch was taken to the Moses hospital in Ticonderoga, where he died around midnight.

The Island Mill Tracks
The tracks to the Island Mill were laid during April of 1891.  Sanborn Insurance maps show these tracks appearing between the 1890 and 1895 maps. When it was completed in 1891, the Island Mill was, in fact, on an island.   At that time, the outlet of Lake George divided into two separate streams of water through the village of Ticonderoga.  A stream joined the river just upstream of Frazier Bridge. North Main Street, now Champlain Avenue, crossed the river over Frazier Bridge. Incidentally, Frazier bridge is a double masonry arched bridge with a cast-iron rail. It was built in 1894 to replace an earlier 1877 Cooper Patent iron bridge which collapsed in early 1892. Frazier Bridge stands as one of the few reminders of the water-related manufacturing activities once centered at the Lower Falls. It wasn’t until 1907, during the construction of a powerhouse, when the second riverbed was filled in and the creek shut off.

The Island Mill spur split from the line running along the Ticonderoga Creek riverbed to the upper mills approximately 225 feet after crossing Lake George Avenue.  It traveled in a northeasterly direction past the flume and raceway and crossed West Montcalm Avenue (West Exchange Street).  This location was originally known as "penstock" because of the old sluice used to regulate the flow of water through this part of the village.  The trackage changed over the years.

During the period from the spur's construction to 1895, the Island Mill tracks served the Liebenroth Van Auw Blank Book Company built in 1893 (later known as the Pad Factory and eventually the Christmas Club in 1948).  The spur serving the Book Company didn't actually split from the Island Mill track, but from the main spur from Ticonderoga running to the upper mills.  The switch for the Book Company spur was next to, but before the switch for the Island Mill tracks when traveling southwest towards the upper mill facilities.  The Book Company spur ran approximately 290 feet before running alongside the Book Company's wedge shaped loading platform.

The main track continued running northeast.  It traveled approximately 1400 feet along the Ticonderoga Creek, crossed West Montcalm Street and proceeded behind the village business district (Ives Opera House, general store, lumber shed) to the Island Mill.  A short spur split from this track before a driveway (later Carnagie Place) leading to the Eber Richards Pulp Mill on the Island.  Richards Pulp was accessed via a wooden bridge at the end of the driveway.  This 90 foot spur crossed the driveway and served a short loading platform, which had a long dock (approximately 80 feet) leading from the loading platform to the Island.  The dock spanned the shore and a short stretch of water.   The Island track traveled another 190 feet before another spur split from it to the eastern side and ran approximately 200 feet.  This spur served a brass foundry near the Ticonderoga Electric Light & Power Company and ran past the northwest side of the foundry's casting store house.

An older photo of the Pad Factory building. This camera angle is nearly identical with the one above although more of a close-up shot. (Ticonderoga Historical Society, M. Wright collection)

The Pad Factory building seen here in December 1992 has continued to provide business space in Ticonderoga for years. The tracks along Algonkin Street passed on this side of the building right where the photographer is standing. The "B" Mill was serviced by following the tracks to the left (Northwest). The Island Mill route was accessed by traveling Northwest another 50-100 feet, throwing the switch, and proceeding back Northeast (to the right) behind the Pad Factory. (M. Wright photo)

The Island track continued another 380 feet in a northeast direction before another spur split to the southwest side.  This track ran approximately 200 feet until it traveled alongside a curved loading platform serving the Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company's outing, packing, and storage building next to machine room #2.

The remainder of the Island track traveled another 450 feet turning to the east and entered the Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company's coal fired power house.  At the end of this spur, the track traveled over a 125 foot coal trestle.  This was the extent of the Island Mill tracks in 1895.

Significant construction occurred during this period.  The amount of trackage serving the Island Mill increased.  The Liebenroth Van Auw Blank Book Company was now temporarily occupied by a graded school.  The spur servicing this facility still existed, however, the loading platform was non existent.

After crossing West Montcalm Avenue, the track passed between a number of new businesses including a wood works, paint shop, C. Bessette Carriage Factory, and repository on the east side of the rails.  A new spur was constructed on the northeast side of the Island Mill track approximately 100 feet from West Montcalm Avenue.  This 100 foot spur served the Carillon Wood Company's lumber storage area.  This was the former site of the F. Ives Saw Mill & Planning Mill, but was vacant in 1895.  The old spur serving the Richards Pulp Mill still existed, but was the business itself had disappeared along with the loading platform and dock across the water.  By 1906, the Eber Richards Pulp Mill was owned by the Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company.  Ti Pulp and Paper turned this facility into its electric power plant.

A new spur split from the Island Mill tracks at the driveway (Carnagie) leading to Ti Pulp & Paper's electric power plant.  This 210 foot spur split to the southeast side of the Island Mill track and served the International Mineral Company's crushed rock elevator, a new business.  The spur ended about 25 feet short of the old brass foundry's casting store house.  The remaining Island Mill trackage remained unchanged. 

The Black Watch Memorial Library was built at this time at the corner of the driveway and West Exchange Street.  Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper also constructed a 100,000 gallon iron water tower southwest of the Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company's finishing room.  The company also constructed a finishing room annex and extended the loading platform around the western side of the finishing building adjacent to the rail spur.

The L&H Benjamin Coal and Fuel Oil Company was located at 197 Montcalm Street in Ticonderoga. Benjamin was a Delaware and Hudson "Hudson Coal" distributor. (1954 New York Telephone Company listing, M. Wright collection)

By 1912, the old Liebenroth Van Auw Blank Book Company building was occupied by the Behringer Radiator.  The building was listed as the property of the Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company.  The spur serving the facility still remained.

Few changes in trackage occurred during this period.  The Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company's electric power plant on the island had disappeared.  The Carillon Wood Company no longer appeared on maps, but the rail spur servicing the facility still existed.  The two spurs after the driveway (Carnagie) remained and the one on the southeast side of the main Island Mill track continued to serve the International Mineral Company.  One new spur was constructed during this period at the end of the Island Mill spur.  This last spur ran parallel to the one over the coaling trestle.  It was 250 feet in length and ended at a loading platform near the coaling trestle.

The Liebenroth Van Auw Blank Book Company, which was occupied by Behringer Radiator was now the Browne Shirt Company Factory. The building was listed as the property of the Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company.  The spur servicing this facility still existed.

After crossing West Montcalm Avenue, the track passed between an increasing number of new businesses.  The largest change was that the Ives Opera House was now The Playhouse with a stage and movies.  The same spurs existed northeast of the driveway (Carnagie), however the Barrett Manufacturing Company was now listed as storage.  The former spur leading to the old brass foundry was shorted to 75 feet due to the recent construction of the expansion of the Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company's Ticonderoga Machine Works.  A new large foundry #13 now replace the old brass foundry and casting store house.  The track alongside the Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company's finishing room still remained, however, the spur over the coal trestle was shortened by approximately 125  feet and the coal trestle removed.

The Island Mill tracks remained unchanged during this period.  The Browne Shirt Company Factory was now the L. J. Bush Printing Company.  The rail spur servicing this facility remained.  The Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Company now extended from the northeast corner of North Champlain Avenue (North Main Street) and the river to the area behind (north) West Montcalm Avenue and southeast of the Island.

1945-1960 Pre-1960 Machine Room Construction
During my youth, the Island itself had disappeared along with a majority of the railroad spurs.  What became known as the more modern Island Mill did exist.  The main track traveled approximately 1400 feet along the Ticonderoga Creek, crossed West Montcalm Avenue and proceeded between the L & H Benjamin Coal and Fuel Oil Company and Village Pharmacy before proceeding behind the village business district to the Island Mill.

Post-1960 Machine Room Construction
The tracks changed somewhat in this area between 1912 and 1960.  The main spur still continued along the Ticonderoga Creek and ended on the western side of the paper company's raw materials storehouse.  There were also three spur tracks that left the main track and serviced the Island Mill’s paper-machine room, finished in 1960, and the finishing room completed in 1963 (built over the old machine shop and finishing room).  Two of these tracks passed the foundry and actually entered the finishing room complex near the #7 machine room.  Continuing northeast, a third spur left the main track and ran along the outside south wall of the raw materials storehouse.  There was a long loading platform located here. The tracks in the Island Mill area had the capacity to hold 12 railcars at one time.  The southerly streambed was actually diverted to the northern side of the Island Mill to make room for one of these new sidings in 1964.

Here is an early view of Penstock (date unknown). In the center of the photo is the La Chute River which flows under the Montcalm Street (formerly Exchange Street) bridge (not in this photo, but it would be past the bottom right corner of the photo). This is the way to the Island Mill. The tracks running Northeast (to the top center/right of the photo) lead to the "B" Mill (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

Tracks to the Upper Falls
The tracks to the upper falls officially begin at the end of Algonkin Street (First Street) after they cross Lake George Avenue.  The switch for the Island Mills was located at a junction approximately 125 feet from Lake George Avenue.  From this point, the tracks continued in a southwesterly direction on their way to the upper falls and the paper mills located in that area.

Like the Island Mill tracks, Sanborn Insurance maps show these tracks appearing between the 1890 and 1895 maps.  During this period, a single track split from Delano Junction traveling east into Ticonderoga down the middle of First Street (Algonkin Street).  Upon reaching the end of First Street, the tracks turned to the south and traveled along the Ticonderoga Creek.

Shortly after making the turn to the south, the tracks passed the Glens Falls Pulp Company "D" mill and dam.  There were no spurs at this location during this period.  The track then continued on to International Paper Company’s Lake George Division’s old “B” mill located on the Upper Falls of the Ticonderoga Creek.  In 1891, this was the location of the Glens Falls Pulp Company, established in 1879 in the old Cotton Factory buildings.  The main track ended at the store house south of the mill's grinding facility and machine shop.

International Paper Company's "B" Mill is shown here on this postcard view.  The upper falls are clearly visible on the right.  A rail spur serviced the facilities on the upper and lower portions of the mill.  A boxcar is visible on the upper left corner area of the card.  See the photo below as well. (postcard photo, M. Wright collection)

By 1895, the tracks to the Island Mill were in place and a switch to the mill was installed northwest of the Lake George Avenue crossing.  The main line still passed the "D" mill, which changed ownership and was listed as the property of the Essex County Pulp and Paper Company.

A short spur was now located approximately 125 feet west of the switch leading to the Island Mill.  This spur was on the southern side of the main track and traveled 425 feet southwest.  The photo here shows a D&H Co. wooden boxcar that appears to be number 15334 or 15354 (33' box car of 50,000 or 60,000 pound capacity) although it’s hard to decipher from the picture.

The Glens Falls Pulp Company at the upper falls was listed as the Lake George Paper Company "C" mill in 1895.  The pulp company was now serviced by two railroad tracks that ran directly along the front of the 227’ building for easy service.  These two tracks consisted of a main spur and a switch track, both of which traveled under a log conveyor leading to a sawing and splitting room.  Five carloads of dry pulp were shipped daily produced from 25 cords of wood.  This picture shows the tracks leading to the "B" Mill with several freight cars.

There were no track additions or changes during this period.  The "D" mill spur was still in place as were the two tracks at the Lake George Paper Company, now listed as the property of the International Paper Company Pulp Mill "B" in 1906. 

This old photo of the B Mill is circa 1910. This part of the facility was located on the bottom of the first set of falls just South of Alexandria Avenue. You can see the freight car on the long track to the left of the mill. The main line of the Baldwin Branch is up on the hill and crosses the river via a plate deck girder bridge. There are also additional spurs to the mill above the hill just off the main of the Baldwin Branch. Notice the huge amounts of wood behind the mill. (Ticonderoga Historical Society, M. Wright collection)

In 1910, the “B” Mill contained four wood grinders, machine shop and boiler house that furnished power for the plant.  There was also a beater and shredder for reducing lapped ground wood so it could be pumped to the main plant.  Pulpwood was purchased in Canada, delivered by canal boat, unloaded by hand, and then brought by railroad cars to the Mill by the Delaware and Hudson.

There were a few changes in the "B" mill property by 1912.  A beater room was attached to the east wall of the machine shop and an 18 foot high pulp pile was located just south of the mill.

By 1945, the "D" mill was listed as International Paper Company property although it was under such ownership at least 39 years earlier in 1906.  The spur track still existed in this location, but was removed by 1960.

The "B" mill had undergone significant changes by 1945.  Approximately 60 feet of the twin railroad tracks were torn up north of the "B" mill.  A majority of the mill itself was gone along with the loading platform, machine shop, and beater room.  Only the southern most portion of the "B" mill remained.  The remaining facility was listed as a generator station.

As long as I can remember, the Delaware and Hudson only used the Algonkin street track to switch the yard and to bring loads and empties to and from the Island Mill.  The line to the “B” mill had been ripped up some time before.  I remember being very young and hiking around the “B” mill area with my older brother which my mother absolutely hated because it was so close to the main dam on the Upper Falls.  You could still see the roadbed, but the rails were gone.  I have a map that was dated some time around 1960 and this track is clearly there.  Another map from 1962 clearly shows the track ending a short distance after crossing Lake George Avenue just west of Iroquois Street and having only the line into the Island Mill complex.  Therefore, the track must have been removed between 1960 and 1962. 

Alas, the Ticonderoga Branch of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad is no more. Just another long and, I fear, nearly forgotten chapter of a railroad I used to watch with a passion as a child.  In fact, the Delaware and Hudson Railroad itself is now a fallen flag.  Although the Bridgeline became a part of the larger Canadian Pacific Railroad and, for a time maintained its status as the St. Lawrence and Hudson division of the CP, it is non-existent today as an independent rail line.  The pride for the D&H's past is quite evident in the eyes of her current employees who now make up the larger Canadian Pacific system.

This view of the D&H Ticonderoga yard looks East. The track in the top center of the photo come into the yard from the junction with the Baldwin Branch. Tracks to the right of where this photo is taken lead to International Paper's lower Mill. (M. Wright photo)

I remember with much sadness several weeks in the spring of 1981 when a salvage company ripped up the tracks of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad's Ticonderoga and Baldwin Branches.  It was if a small part of my life and what I remembered as being a part of Ticonderoga was being destroyed.  I took several photographs of this terrible deed and still pull them out from time to time.  I wish I had taken more photos while the railroad still maintained a large presence in the town.

You can still see some of the remains of the railroad's presence in Ticonderoga - the depot, the plate girder bridge over the La Chute River near Alexandria Avenue, a few meager remains of the old coaling tower location, the roadbed near NY Route 22 entering the woods, and the roadbed from The Portage to Champlain Avenue to name a few.

Today, what was once the old Ticonderoga Pulp and Paper Company is now the beautiful Percy Thompson "Bicentennial Park."  The only remaining evidence of a paper mill is the main office now used as the "Heritage Museum" (exhibits and special programs interpret the industrial history of Ticonderoga) and the old cement grinding stones lining Tower Avenue across the La Chute River near the last of the river's water falls.

The current Elks Building (BPOE) was actually International Paper's Accounting building where my mother worked for so many years.  Every Independence Day, a small carnival fills the old mill area and a fireworks display is conducted from the other side of the river from what was once the American Graphite Company (the graphite refinery for those yellow Dixon Ticonderoga pencils many of us use).  The old woodlots and rail yards where the Delaware and Hudson delivered it loads are now home to a retirement community and have acres of rolling hills and green grass.  Baldwin Dock still remains, but sits fairly abandoned.  Steamships of the Lake George Steamboat Company now only stop at Baldwin dock by request only.  Montcalm Landing is gone, but evidence of the old pilings can be seen from the top of Mount Defiance.

This view looks East along Algonkin Street in 1981 as the scrappers do their dirty deed. The Ticonderoga yard lies East at the end of this street. The large white rectangular building (center left) was the P&C grocery store (known as "Save Way" when I was much younger). I lived directly across the street from here until about 1974. (M. Wright photo)

I will always remember with great fondness, however, those days of my early childhood when I heard the familiar rumble of those old Alcos and stopped whatever I was doing to wave to the engineer as he guided his train along the tracks near my home.  And you know...he always waved back with a smile on his face and blew the whistle for me.

Expect updates and additions as I discover new information and photos relevant to this subject.  If you have photos, post cards, or other documentation related to the Ticonderoga area, especially actual railroad action photos that would apply here, please contact me.  I am in the market to purchase such information and would love to add it to this site.  I challenge my fellow "Ticonderogans" to go through your old photos.  That picture of grandpa might have been taken with some great railroad action going on in the background.  Come on...dig into those photos!

The Bridge Line Historical Society

If you love the Delaware & Hudson Railroad, you must be a member! This is a great organization containing members with a vast amount of knowledge pertaining to the D&H and dedicated to preserving it's history.

History of the Addison Railroad

This has some spectacular information and very pertinent to anyone in the Ticonderoga and nearby Vermont areas. I thoroughly enjoyed this site. Great job!

Existing Railroad Stations in NY State

This site created by Charles Woolever is a fantastic accumulation of hundreds of railroad stations and photos still existing in New York State. Many of these are Delaware and Hudson stations including Ticonderoga. A lot of work went into this site so take a look.

History of the Dixon Ticonderoga Co.

Dixon is a part of Ticonderoga's history. There isn't much historical information here, but worth a look just the same. The American Graphite Company supplied a fair amount of the graphite used in Dixon's famous pencils (named after the mines in the Ticonderoga area). American Graphite was located across the Ticonderoga Creek near the present day Little League field area (not the original Little League field where the waste treatment facility is now located).

The Mohawk and Hudson Chapter of the NRHS

This organization is involved in preserving the history and tradition of railroading in the New York State Capital Region. There is some good Delaware & Hudson and Alco information to be found here.

D & H Canal Historical Society

Here you will find some great history on the Delaware & Hudson's beginnings.

Adirondack Guardian

Find out all the latest news in the Town of Ticonderoga and local area.

Delaware & Hudson Virtual Museum

Darren E. Hadley's fantastic site dedicated to D&H memorabilia. Such items will include timetables, china, misc paper, photos, and other D&H historical items.

Ticonderoga Ferry The web site for the Ticonderoga Ferry between Ticonderoga and Shoreham, Vermont.
Penfield Museum The web site for the history of the iron working industry in the North Country of New York State. Penfield is located in Ironville in the Town of Crown Point, NY.
Ticonderoga Chamber of Commerce The Chamber of Commerce page includes information on economic development, recreation, local events, dining and visitor information.
Town of Ticonderoga This is the official site of the Town of Ticonderoga.  It is filled with local information and history.
Port Henry - An Adirondack Corner There is some great information on the mining history of the Adirondacks on this site.  A mining museum also may be found in the town of Port Henry and is well worth the trip.
PRIDE of Ticonderoga

Preserve, Revitalize, Implement, Direct, and Effect community development. PRIDE of Ticonderoga, Inc. is a tax exempt, not-for-profit Rural Preservation Company established in May 1984 to aid, assist and foster the rebuilding, revitalization and preservation of Ticonderoga in Essex County.

Delaware & Hudson Related Books/Publications
Adirondack Railroads Harold K. Hochschild 1986

Third printing.

Adirondack Vistas Ed Gardner ?

A pictorial view of the old railroad lines of the Adirondacks. This spiral bound publication is approximately 98 pages of text and old postcards, railroad timetables, and steamship timetables.

Before Guilford Preston Cook 1988

A look at the Delaware and Hudson, Maine Central, and Boston & Maine railroads before Guilford came along and destroyed them.

Classic Freight Cars Volume 8 Henry Maywald 1995

Color photos of Delaware and Hudson boxcars.

Century of Progress, A Delaware & Hudson 1925 This is a fantastic book published by the Railroad and extremely difficult to find as an original print.  It was printed to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the railroad.
Delaware & Hudson Jim Shaughnessy 1982

Sixth printing. The bible for Delaware & Hudson history.

Delaware & Hudson Canal and the Gravity Railroad, The Matthew M. Osterberg 2002 This book looks at how these transportation systems worked, showcasing major engineering feats such as the building of 108 locks and fours suspension aqueducts, the equipment used, and the grueling operations. 128 pages.
D&H Color Guide to Freight and Passenger Equipment Jim Odell, Jeffrey Martin
Gardiner Cross, Jack Wright

Color photos of Delaware and Hudson freight and passenger equipment.

Delaware and Hudson in Color Volume 1 David R. Sweetland 1992

Great color photos.

Delaware and Hudson in Color Volume 2 Jeremy Plant and Jeffrey Plant 1993

Great color photos.

D&H Industry Sampler John Nehrich unknown

A reprint of the 1931 inspection of the lines by the Delaware and Hudson.

Delaware & Hudson Passenger Trains The Final Decade Doug Lezette 2002 This soft cover book by Bridge Line Historical Society member Doug Lezette is filled with fantastic color photographs of D&H passenger trains.
Delaware & Hudson Thunder & Lightning Stripes Jaimie F.M. Serensits Railroad Press 2003 This full color magazine-like book covers the D&H from the 1970's to the 80's with spectacular Northeast color photography in such places like Binghamton, Oneonta, Starrucca Viaduct, Mechanicville, Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Allentown and more. Classic motive power includes Delaware & Hudson Century 420's, C424's, RS3's, RS11's, RS36's, rare PA1's and Baldwin Sharks, U23B's, U30B's, U33C's, GP38-2's, GP39-2's,
Diesel Era
July/August 1996
Betty Ahearn Buckell 1996

Contains article on D&H/Guilford GP39-2s.

Doctor Durant and his Iron Horse Harold K. Hochschild 1982

Third printing. Adirondack Railroad.

Employee Timetables Delaware & Hudson various dates Employee timetables contain data on each subdivision of the railroad, special rules, and specific information on individual branch lines.
Freight, Passenger and Work Equipment Development: The First 100 Years Society of Freight Car Historians 1989

Reprint of the 1927 Inspection of the Lines by the Delaware and Hudson.

Illustrated Treasury of the American Locomotive Company O.M. Kerr 1990

The story of ALCO and some great b/w photos of motive power including D&H.

Lake George Steamboat Company Schedule Lake George Steamboat Company various This was an annual schedule published for steamboat customers on Lakes George and Champlain.  It listed boat and train schedules.
Official Lists  The Delaware & Hudson  Company various dates Official lists contain a great deal of information from railroad agents to wyes.
Oneonta Roundhouse, The

Jim Louden Leatherstocking Railway Historical Society

1993 History of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad shops in Oneonta from 1865 to 1992; 99 pages.
PA4 Locomotive Norman E. Anderson
C.G. MacDermot

Information on Delaware and Hudson's famous PA locomotives.

Passenger and Freight Stations Delaware & Hudson 1928

This was a 1928 inspection of the lines by the Delaware and Hudson. All stations of the line are included with photos and descriptions. A reprint of this book was done by the Bridge Line Historical Society in 1999.

Passenger Timetables Delaware & Hudson various dates Passenger timetables contain information on station stops and scheduled times for each stop.
Railroads of the Adirondacks Michael Kudish 1996 This is another great book by Mike Kudish.  It contains priceless track diagrams and information on the Delaware & Hudson and other Adirondack railroads.  There are some great photographs.  Information is arranged by discipline and geography.
Rails Along the Battenkill David F. Nestle 1983 This books takes the reader through the history of the Greenwich & Johnsonville Railway, a predecessor of the Delaware & Hudson.  There are many nice photos, timetable reproduction, maps, tickets, etc.
Rails in the North Woods Richard S. Allen 1978

This book looks at the histories of nine different Adirondack shortline railroads - Rich Lumber Company, Emporium Lumber Company, Grasse River Railroad, Lowville & Beaver River Railroad, The "Peg-Leg" Railroad, Carthage & Copenhagen Railroad, Adirondack & St. Lawrence Railroad, Crown Point Iron Company Railroad, Williamstown & Redfield Railroad.

The Steamboats of Lake George 1817 to 1932 The Lake George Steamboat Company (Delaware & Hudson Railroad) 1932 This publication of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad contains some fantastic historical information on Lake George steamboat operations including the landing at Baldwin.
Steamers of the Delaware & Hudson Tony Reznak Jr. 1972

Pictorial history of D&H steam locomotives.

Steam on the Anthracite Railroads Mike Eagleson 1974 Full of really great photos of the final glory days of steam on the Central of New Jersey; Delaware & Hudson; Erie; Lehigh & Hudson River; Lehigh & New England; Lehigh Valley; NYO&W; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western; and Reading. great shots of steam in the East. 96 11" x 8" slick pages.
Summer Paradise, A Delaware & Hudson Corporation Passenger Department various dates

This was an annual publication by the D&H Passenger Department.  It was an index to resorts, hotels, boarding houses, villages, hamlets, etc. served by the railroad.  Packed full of information and black and white photos.

Summer Paradise in History, The Warwick Stevens Carpenter 1914

A compilation of fact and tradition covering Lake George, Lake Champlain, the Adirondack Mountains, and other sections reached by the rail and steamer lines of the Delaware and Hudson Company.

Where Did the Tracks Go Michael Kudish 1985

Past railroad ventures in the Adirondacks.

Ticonderoga & Area Related Books/Publications
Addison Road, The Frank L. Webster 1985 This illustrated booklet describes the history of the Addison Railroad, which runs between Ticonderoga, NY and Leicester Junction, VT. It contains maps, pictures of locomotives and wreck, etc.
Adirondack Album, Vol. I Barney Fowler 1982 Stories about places, people, and events in the Adirondacks.
Adirondack Album, Vol. II Barney Fowler 1974 Stories about places, people, and events in the Adirondacks.
Adirondack Album, Vol. III Barney Fowler 1982 Stories about places, people, and events in the Adirondacks.
Adirondack High Peaks and the Forty-Sixers Grace L. Hudawalski 1971 Adirondack guides, rock climbing, birds, flora, and more.
Adirondack Map State of New York 1909

Maps of the Adirondack area of New York.

Business Directory - Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Hague Ticonderoga Area Chamber of Commerce 1995 This small booklet contains miscellaneous information on the Town of Ticonderoga and surrounding area.
Centennial Address Joseph Cook 1909 This Ticonderoga Historical Society publication discusses the historical importance that Ticonderoga played during the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Exploring Lake George and Lake Champlain 100 Years Ago Stuart D. Ludlum 1972

Many sketches and much history of the Lake regions during the 18th Century.

Exploring Lake Champlain and its Highlands The Lake Champlain Committee 1981

Recent photos and information on the Lake Champlain area.

Fort Ticonderoga S.H.P. Pell 1935

A short history of Fort Ticonderoga.

Fort Ticonderoga S.H.P. Pell 1974

A short history of Fort Ticonderoga. This is a reprint of the 1934 edition.

Fort Ticonderoga S.H.P. Pell 1975

A short history of Fort Ticonderoga. This is a reprint of the 1934 edition.

History of the Adirondacks Vol. I & II Alfred L. Donaldson 1992 A nice two-volume history of the Adirondacks.
History of Port Henry, New York Dr. Charles B. Warner 1931 This history of Port Henry includes the first inhabitants, industries, mining, educational institutions, religious organizations, pastimes, and more.
Historic Lake George Wallace E. Lamb 1938

History of the Lake George region of New York State.

Historic Ticonderoga Ticonderoga Chamber of Commerce 1976

Short history of the Ticonderoga area.

History of Putnam Thomas W. McArthur unknown

Reprint of a 1901 document.

International Paper Company Fiftieth Anniversary 1898-1948 International Paper Company 1948

This small publication has a short history of the paper mill in Ticonderoga with photos of facilities and people.

International Paper Company General Location Map of All Mills at Ticonderoga, N.Y. International Paper Company 1926 A detailed map detailing all mills making up the IPCO Ticonderoga mills.  Provides detailed water levels from outlet of Lake George to Lake Champlain.  Detailed track diagrams of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad in Ticonderoga.
Lake Champlain Key to Liberty Ralph Nading Hill 1987

Information on Lake Champlain's importance and history. Includes some information on Champlain Landing and more.

Lake George (Images of America) Gale J. Halm and Mary H. Sharp 2001 A very interesting soft cover book describing and detailing the various aspects of Lake George including transportation, accommodations, excursions and more.
Manning's Directory H.A. Manning Co. 1929 Hardcover directory for Ticonderoga, Moriah, Crown Point, Westport, Chilson, Montcalm Landing, Fort Ticonderoga, Streetroad, Moriah Center, Mineville, Witherbee, Wadhams, Crown Point Center, Factoryville, Ironville.
Methodism in Ticonderoga 1811-1961 First Methodist Church 1961 A brief history of the Methodist religion in Ticonderoga.
Lake George Stuff Betty Ahearn Buckell 1992

Various information regarding the Lake George area.

Map, Section of Lake George L.W. Coulter 1943 This map depicts a section of Lake George including the outlet at Ticonderoga, NY.  This includes the Alexandria area.
Map of Ticonderoga USGS 1950

Great information on D&H track plans in Ticonderoga.

Map, Ticonderoga Village of Ticonderoga 1976

Street Map of Ticonderoga.

Map, Ticonderoga Library of Congress unknown

Reprint of 1891 map.

Map, Ticonderoga Sanborn Insurance 1912, 1960

Great information on D&H track plans in Ticonderoga.

Map, Ticonderoga Mills of International Paper International Paper 1926 Map depicts all Delaware & Hudson trackage within the village of Ticonderoga as well as all paper mills associated with International Paper.
Map, USGS Soil Survey  USGS 1904 Fantastic information and detail for the Ticonderoga and Crown Point areas.
Mt. Defiance James Lonergan 1975

A short history of Mt. Defiance with many b/w photos including it's development as a tourist attraction.

Old Lake George Hotels Betty Ahearn Buckell 1986

Photos and information on past Lake George area hotels.

Reflections, Vol 1, #2 Leila M. Wells Summer/Fall 1973 Articles and stories from and about the Adirondack area. This issue includes the Lake Champlain monster and Crown Point Iron Company Railroad.
Sanborn Insurance Company maps of the Ticonderoga area Sanborn Insurance Company, Inc. various dates The Sanborn Insurance Company made several maps of all areas of the country including Ticonderoga.  These detailed maps show rail lines and individual homes and businesses.  Ticonderoga maps available to the public include the years 1898, 1906, 1912, 1923, and 1945.
Sketch Book of Essex County Railroad Stations, A

Sid Couchy - art

Morris F. Glenn - text

2000 This is a fantastic source of information on railroad stations in Essex County New York.  It has proven to be an invaluable source in my research due to its extensive endnotes.
Sketches of Essex County - Ticonderoga Flavius Joseph Cook 1858 An interesting description of the town of Ticonderoga describing local politics, businesses, including boat building and the legal profession, agriculture, education and natural history.
Sketches of Essex County - Ticonderoga Flavius Joseph Cook 1989

Reprint of 1858 book.

Still More Stories of Lake George Fact & Fancy Thomas Reeves Lord 1999 This extension of the original book also has some additional information on Ticonderoga.
Stories of Lake George Fact & Fancy Thomas Reeves Lord 1987 Covers various stories and subjects related to the Lake George region.
Telephone Directory New York Telephone Company various New York Telephone Company printed yearly telephone listings.  These listing contain interesting and useful information regarding businesses and business ads for Ticonderoga and the surrounding area.
Ticonderoga General Plan Village of Ticonderoga 1962

This is the 1962 General Plan. Contains several maps, statistics and information on the Village and Town of Ticonderoga.

Ticonderoga Historic Portage Calendar Carroll Vincent Lonergan 1959

A history of the Ticonderoga area and its military significance in the 17th and 18th century century struggles between the French and British. The author grew up in Ticonderoga and so has a unique perspective and insite in this writting.

Ticonderoga Historical Society Calendar Ticonderoga Historical Society 1998

Great b/w photos of the Ticonderoga area.

Ticonderoga, Patches and Patterns from Its Past Ticonderoga Historical Society 1969

Hardcover book covering the history of Ticonderoga. Many black and white photos. Great history.

Ticonderoga, Patches and Patterns from Its Past Ticonderoga Historical Society 1997 Reprint of the 1969 edition.
Ticonderoga, Patches and Patterns Extended Ticonderoga Historical Society 1990-95 Additions to the popular book.
Through the Light Hole Patrick Farrell 1996 Hardcover book on the iron ore mining in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Some photos of Adirondack area railroads. Great history.
Two Centuries of Ferry Boating Ralph Nading Hill 1972 Softcover book on the history of ferry boats on Lake Champlain. Book is 32 pages with color and black & white photos.
Upon Chilson Hill Lois Moody Gunning 1999

A great history of Chilson Hill located near the Town of Ticonderoga.  Written by a native resident of Chilson.  This has some great stories of the founding and history of the area.

Many thanks go to the excellent staff at the United States Library of Congress, specifically the Geography and Map Division in the James Madison building.  These people are some of the most courteous and helpful individuals that can be found.  They were instrumental in obtaining Sanborn Fire Insurance Company maps of the Ticonderoga area. Also, many thanks to the dedicated individuals of the Ticonderoga Historical Society, specifically the Hancock House of Ticonderoga, and the Ticonderoga Heritage Museum.

Photos of railroad action in Ticonderoga, old photos of D&H rail yard in Ticonderoga, old photos/post cards of the Ticonderoga paper mill (all locations, lower mill, island mill, upper mill near Alexandria Ave), photos/post cards of Ti businesses etc., old local area maps, D&H public and employee railroad timetables, Lake George/Lake Champlain steamship timetables, D&H official lists, photos/information on D&H coaling tower between Champlain Ave and Lake George Ave., photos/info on Pond, Lumber, & Coal, and Catlin Feed (both located on Lake George Ave., photos/info on Montcalm Landing, track diagrams (Ti yard, "B" mill area, lower mill area, etc.), Baldwin Dock photos/info, Ti Papermaker and Tower bulletins, personal stories of the railroad in the Ti area.

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